|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 68-74
A study of certain correlates of job satisfaction among judicial personnel, in a district of Western Maharashtra
Kriti A Patel1, Shekhar S Rajderkar1, Jayashree D Naik1, Vivek S Behere2
1 Department of Preventive Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Miraj, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Web Publication||12-Dec-2014|
Kriti A Patel
Department of Preventive Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel - 400 012, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: In present scenario, the legal profession has gained utmost importance, which makes the job of a lawyer the most challenging, with lots of mental and physical strain. The rewards can be great, but so are the pressures. High job demands lead to imbalance between what is expected and what is received (job dissatisfaction) which, in turn, leads to job strains. So, the present study focused on the impact of certain variables on job satisfaction of the judiciaries. Objectives: To study the level of job satisfaction among judicial personnel; to identify the impact of job level (hierarchy) in the experience of job satisfaction; to find the gender difference (if any) for the level of job satisfaction; and to examine the pattern of relationship of certain variables with job satisfaction. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 year duration, in total 965 judicial personnel of different courts in the district of Sangli, which involved data collection using predesigned proforma. A scale, having 15 different independent predictors was used as a validated screening tool, to calculate their job satisfaction score. The most contributing variable and its correlation with job satisfaction was found by stepwise multiple regression and correlation analysis using SPSS Version-16. Results and Conclusion: Out of the total, Class I judiciaries were 692 (71.7%). A majority (71.4%) of the study subjects were male. Overall mean job satisfaction score was 5.38 ± 2.7. Twenty-three percent females, compared with only 9% males, had low job satisfaction (P < 0.5). The best predictor of job satisfaction in males and females was emotional exhaustion (β = 0.191) and conflicts between values and practice (β = 0.252), respectively. Higher is the job satisfaction score, lesser the level of job satisfaction. The findings of the study revealed that job satisfaction was found to be significantly (P < 0.0005) and positively correlated with all the variables in the study.
Keywords: Job satisfaction, judicial personnel, Western Maharashtra
|How to cite this article:|
Patel KA, Rajderkar SS, Naik JD, Behere VS. A study of certain correlates of job satisfaction among judicial personnel, in a district of Western Maharashtra. Indian J Occup Environ Med 2014;18:68-74
|How to cite this URL:|
Patel KA, Rajderkar SS, Naik JD, Behere VS. A study of certain correlates of job satisfaction among judicial personnel, in a district of Western Maharashtra. Indian J Occup Environ Med [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Apr 24];18:68-74. Available from: http://www.ijoem.com/text.asp?2014/18/2/68/146894
| Introduction|| |
In the present day of globalization and liberalization, legal profession which serves as center of the sociopolitical domain of the Indian society, is growing very fast. The practice of law is multidimensional in character. India is the biggest democracy of the World where Judiciaries enjoy one of the most powerful and independent status. In the present scenario, the legal profession has gained utmost importance, which makes the job of a lawyer the most challenging, with lots of mental and physical strain. Due to this nature of their work, they need to be physically fit and mentally alert. On the other hand, they may be considered more prone to psychosomatic disorders as well as various other health problems. 
The legal profession is a high-prestige, high-income, high-skilled, and highly stressful profession. The rewards of the profession can be great, but so are the pressures.  Due to high job demands (overload), there is a significant impact of stress on their mental health, which in turn leads to job strains.  Job satisfaction is defined as "the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job as achieving or facilitating one's values." It refers to "the positive orientation of an individual towards the work role which he is presently occupying."  There are a variety of factors that can influence a person's level of job satisfaction such as pay, promotion system, working conditions, leadership, social relationship, and the job itself. The happier the people are with the job, the more satisfied they are said to be.
The inherent nature of work of judiciaries, like other regimentalized personnel, is a bit different from any other occupational group. That is why, they need a strong occupational health service, and this type of service should cover a broad spectrum of area emphasizing preventive, promotive, curative, and rehabilitative services not only for the individual but also for his family. 
Job stress and burnout have become two of the buzzwords of the present century influencing job satisfaction of the employees. There is a negative relationship between burnout and job satisfaction.  Freudenberger described "Burnout" as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion and cynicism that occurs frequently among individuals who work with people. Maslach (1986) said that three core aspects of burnout are included in these definitions: Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a feeling of low personal accomplishment. Burnout is a persistent, negative, work-related state of mind in "normal" individuals that is primarily characterized by exhaustion, which is accompanied by distress, a sense of reduced effectiveness, decreased motivation, and development of dysfunctional attitudes and behaviors at work. Often burnout is self-perpetuating because of inadequate coping strategies that are associated with the syndrome. 
Approximately 30%-50% of workforce is exposed to psychological overload at work resulting in occupational stress or burnout. The increasing difficulty in integrating working life with family life globally has caused imbalance in financial capital, social capital, and health capital. European member states have reported burnout prevalence of 29% as compared with 38% and in UK and 75% of US workers admit that their jobs are stressful and pressure of work is steadily increasing. Workforce affected with burnout can present with physical, affective, cognitive behavioral, and motivational symptoms in varied combinations . Burnout syndrome that has immense economic and psychosocial impact on the organization and the work force need to be prevented. 
Psychosocial stress refers to acute or chronic events of psychological or social origin, which challenge the homeostatic state of biological systems. Stress is involved in an environmental situation that is perceived as presenting demand, which threatens to exceed the person's capabilities and resources for meeting it, under conditions where he/she expects a substantial difference in the rewards and costs from meeting the demand versus not meeting it.  "Workplace stress" is the harmful physical and emotional response that can happen when there is a conflict between job demands on the employee and the amount of control an employee has over meeting these demands. As stated by the Canadian Mental Health Association: Fear of job redundancy, layoffs due to an uncertain economy, and increased demands for overtime due to staff cutbacks act as negative stressors. Employees who start to feel the "pressure to perform" can get caught in a downward spiral of increasing effort to meet rising expectations with no increase in job satisfaction.
From the documented evidence, it is clear that as far as work life is concerned, extreme stress is so aversive to employees, that they will try to avoid it by withdrawing either psychologically (through disinterest or lack of involvement in the job) or physically (frequent late coming, absenteeism, lethargy, and so on) or by leaving job entirely. It predisposes the individual to develop several psychosomatic illness, in contrast, the absence of extreme stress would result in more satisfied, happy, healthy, and effective employees. 
The present baseline study is planned to be conducted in all the judicial personnel working in a Municipal Corporation Area of Western Maharashtra, which seems to be highly pertinent and desirable as no systematic study has been done so far in this area.
| Materials and methods|| |
The present study was carried out in all cadres of the Judicial personnel working in different Courts under Municipal Corporation Area (Court A and Court B), in Western part of Maharashtra (Name of the courts withheld) from March 1, 2011, to February 29, 2012.
A descriptive cross-sectional study.
A complete and authentic list of personnel, which was available with the respective courts was cross-checked by personnel enumeration of the study subjects by individual visits. The distribution of various categories of judicial personnel (both male and female) in the Court A and Court B was 1048 as on January 1, 2011, as per available records at the time of study out of which 965 judiciaries, that is, 92.08% judiciaries (Class I-IV) were included.
All nonrespondents, nonwilling participants or those who were not present (due to sick leaves, transfers, so on) during the study were excluded.
The requisite permission from the respective authorities was procured prior to starting the actual study. Informed consent in the local language of the participants was obtained prior to their interviews and examination. No investigative/diagnostic/therapeutic interventions were made by any of the authors. No study subject was asked to contribute/spend toward this study in cash or kinds.
Using predesigned proforma and Personal Health Record Card of participants enrolled in the study, the general information was collected. By using job satisfaction scale, the level of job satisfaction and the impact of certain variables were studied in the judiciaries.
Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)  a six-point scale containing 22 statements of job-related feelings, designed to assess three aspects of the Burnout syndrome: Emotional Exhaustion (EE), De-personalization (DP), and Reduced Personal Accomplishment (PA). Each aspect is measured by a separate subscale. The EE subscale, which contains 9 items, assesses feelings of being emotionally overextended and exhausted by one's work. De-personalization contains 5 items and measures an impersonal response toward recipients of one's service, care, treatment, or instruction. The Reduced Personal Accomplishment contains 8 items to assess the feelings of competence and successful achievement in one's work with people. An average degree of Burnout is reflected in average scores on the three basic subscales as used in the present study.
ICMR Psychological Stress Questionnaire Scale by Srivastava  was used to assess the extent of the basic components of psychological stress (such as pressure, conflict, tension, anxiety, frustrations, so on) resulting from perceived stress situation (such as adversities, hardships, threats, afflictions, failures, constraints, excessive demands, conflicting roles, and so on) in various spheres of one's social life. This scale consists of two sections.
Verma, 2008,  utilized this questionnaire to prepare a Stress Questionnaire for lawyers, which contains 12 items (such as over expectation, strained interpersonal relationship, poor economic position, and others) related to lawyers in which scoring was done on a 4-point scale.
Thus, presence/absence of following 3 subscales of burnout and 12 psychosocial stressors was noted in each subject to assess the level of job satisfaction in the present study:
- Emotional exhaustion
- Reduced personal accomplishment
- Strained interpersonal relationship
- Poor economic position
- Poor social position
- Competition and
- Conflict between values and practice for male and female
- Nonavailability of resources
- Work overload
- Work underload
- Improper seating place.
Measurement of job satisfaction
The level of job satisfaction was scored by taking into 15 (independent) variables as the predictors of job satisfaction (dependent) as mentioned above.  Graded as:
Also, in the present study none of the study subjects gave positive response for 4 variables, namely, Nonavailability of resources, Work overload, Work underload, and Improper seating place. A corelational design was used to find out the pattern of relationship between these variables of burnout and psychosocial stressors with job satisfaction. Furthermore, stepwise multiple regression analysis was computed to predict the most contributing factor in the subjects.
| Results and discussion|| |
It is seen from [Table 1], out of total 965 study subjects, 707 (73.26%) judiciaries were working in Court A and 258 (26.74%) were working in Court B with males and females constituting 689 (71.39%) and 276 (28.61%), respectively, in the ratio of 2.49. Out of the total judiciaries, Class I (Judges and advocates) constituted 692, that is, 71.70% and Class II-IV (staff) constituted 273, that is, 28.30%, respectively.
|Table 1: Courtwise, cadrewise, and genderwise distribution of the study subjects |
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From [Table 2], out of the total 965 subjects, 121 (12.53%) were young adults (<31 years), 637 (66.01%) were in their early middle age (31-50 years), and 207 (21.45%) were in their late middle age (>50 years). Majority of the subjects were educationally well qualified, 138 (14.3%) had a degree and remaining 758 (78.55%) had a postgraduate degree. Eight hundred and eighty (91.19%) subjects were married and 513 (53.17%) had total monthly income of more than Rs. 40,000. Eight hundred and ninety-three (92.53%) study subjects were from upper socioeconomic status, with a majority, that is, 890 (92.22%) belonging to nuclear family. Nine hundred and twenty-four (95.75%) lived in their own house and 603 (62.49%) had work experience of less than 14 years.
The maximum and minimum job satisfaction score in males and females was 11 and 0, respectively. As noted from [Table 3], overall job satisfaction in majority of the study subjects was intermediate -463 (47.98%), followed by high satisfaction in 371 (38.44%), and few having low job satisfaction -131 (13.58%). In Class I judiciaries, majority, that is, 343 (49.57%) had intermediate job satisfaction, whereas in Class II-IV, the majority, that is, 127 (46.52%) individuals were highly satisfied. Similarly, 315 (45.72%) males had high job satisfaction compared with only 56 (20.29%) females. This was found to be statistically significant.
|Table 3: Rankwise distribution of study subjects based on job satisfaction |
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In a study conducted on managers in industries in Kolkata, it was found that significant higher amounts of job stress and job satisfaction were present in 25-35 years age group than their counterparts between 36 and 45 years and 46 and 55 years.  In a study done on six professional groups,  it was found that stress arising from work-family conflicts, performance pressure, and poor job prospects was negatively associated with the level of work satisfaction. These findings were discussed in the contexts of increasing professionalization and deprofessionalization and the growing emphases on productivity and efficiency in a quickly developing economy.
Overall mean job satisfaction score was 5.38 ± 2.7. Mean job satisfaction score was higher in females 6.56 ± 2.3 as compared with males 4.77 ± 2.6. Similarly, job satisfaction score was higher in Class I judiciaries (5.44 ± 2.62) as compared with Class II-IV (4.87 ± 2.69) [Figure 1].
In the present study, more is the job satisfaction score (JS), lesser is the level of job satisfaction. The implications of burnout subscales (EE, D, RPA) and psychosocial stressors for job satisfaction among male and female judiciaries were studied. The Stepwise Multiple Regression analysis was done so as to predict the most contributing factor in males and it was found that job satisfaction score is significantly (P < 0.0005) and positively correlated to all variables. The Adjusted R 2 value shows that inclusion of poor social position and stress accounts for 100% variance in job satisfaction among the male and female judiciaries, respectively. From the above table, it is observed that emotional exhaustion (EE) and conflicts between values and practice (CO) is most significant predictor of job satisfaction in males and females, respectively, as β value (standardized regression coefficient) of 0.191 and 0.252 was found to be maximum. Also, t-value of EE was found to be highest in males (t = 7.167) indicating that it has largest impact on job satisfaction score [Table 4]a.
A hundred percent variance was accounted by inclusion of poor social position in all class of judiciaries. Jealousy (J) is most significant predictor of job satisfaction in Class I judiciaries, as β = 0.203 was found to be maximum in Class I judiciaries, whereas in Class II-IV SIPR, PEP, and EE were the most significant predictors (β = 0.186) [Table 4]b.
From [Table 5]a and b, it was observed that in all study subjects, job satisfaction score is significantly and positively related to all variables under study (P < 0.0005) as depicted by correlation analysis.
In a similar Indian study, stepwise regression analysis showed that EE, work underload and economic position are the common predictors of job satisfaction in male and female lawyers. The t-test results revealed that females experience less job satisfaction as compared with males. 
Daicoff (1977) also found that increasing competition results in stress and low job satisfaction among lawyers. It was found that when lawyers have less work to do as compared with their colleagues, then the situation ends with job dissatisfaction.  Female lawyers have less job satisfaction and more stress and burnout than males. ,,
| Conclusions|| |
The high demand, low control over work, and low support at work with difficult work environment and inadequate recreation at the place of intermediary rest corroborates with the development of stress affecting the normal biological functioning leading to either avoidance of duties or making judicial personnel susceptible to poor level of job satisfaction. The present study revealed that job satisfaction score and the level of job satisfaction are inversely related. Mean job satisfaction score was higher in females showing female judiciaries were less satisfied with their jobs. Similarly, on comparing Class I with Class II-IV judiciaries, Class I were less satisfied with their jobs.
Burnouts and psychosocial stressors are the best predictors for job satisfaction. Individuals under excessive stress tend to find their jobs less satisfying. Some of their intrinsic or extrinsic needs may be thwarted or not met sufficiently. In the present study, job satisfaction was found to be significantly (P < 0.0005) and positively correlated with all the variables under the study. The results of the study reiterate the significance of demands at each career development level as pointed out by Hollingworth et al. 
| Recommendations|| |
No major changes or modifications in the existing health care system for the judiciaries are envisaged in the recommendations.
• One needs to focus on individual, individual/organization, and the organization itself. Interventions could be in the form of stress audit, rational emotive therapy, and relaxation techniques. At interphase level, one can attend to time management, interpersonal skill training, balancing work life and family life, peer support, and professional counseling. The most important strategy is aimed at the organization level by initiating organizational development, process that shall address issues of career, job content, conflict management, decision-making retraining and institutionalization of Occupational Health.
• Stress management programs and self-care training, both individual focused and organizational focused may be designed to help employees manage work versus life balance and understand how stress can affect job satisfaction.
• The judicial personnel should be provided with the necessary opportunities, information, and skills needed to protect themselves. Court personnel to stop acts of mutual conflicts and promoting prompt, constructive resolution of conflicts. The integrity of the courts should be protected by establishing mutual respect among the workers.
These steps are essential in protecting our nation's judiciaries and the integrity of our judicial system. Law firms should try to ensure that the workload is in line with worker's capabilities and resources and should provide opportunities for social interaction among workers.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]