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  Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 31-34
 

Effectiveness of video-assisted teaching program on safety measures followed by the employees working in the silica-based industry in Puducherry, India


1 Division of Community Health Nursing, College of Nursing, Mother Theresa Post Graduate and Research Institute of Health Sciences, Puducherry, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Health Nursing, RMCN, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication10-Jun-2016

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Karaline Karunagari
Division of Community Health Nursing, RMCN, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-5278.183834

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Employees constitute a large and important sector of the world's population. The global labor force is about 2,600 million and 75% of this force is working in developing countries. Occupational health and safety (OHS) must be managed in every aspect of their work. Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as OHS or workplace health and safety (WHS) is an area concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people engaged in any employment. The goal of OSH is to foster a safe and healthy work environment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of video-assisted teaching program on safety measures. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 employees were selected from M/s ACE Glass Containers Ltd. at Puducherry, India using the convenience sampling technique. Pretest was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Subsequent video-assisted teaching was conducted by the investigator after which posttest was conducted. Results and Conclusion: Video-assisted teaching program was found to be effective in improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the subjects. Periodical reorientation on safety measures are needed for all the employees as it is essential for promoting the well-being of employees working in any industry.


Keywords: Effectiveness of video-assisted teaching program, employees, safety measures, silica-based industry


How to cite this article:
Nanthini T, Karunagari K. Effectiveness of video-assisted teaching program on safety measures followed by the employees working in the silica-based industry in Puducherry, India. Indian J Occup Environ Med 2016;20:31-4

How to cite this URL:
Nanthini T, Karunagari K. Effectiveness of video-assisted teaching program on safety measures followed by the employees working in the silica-based industry in Puducherry, India. Indian J Occup Environ Med [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Nov 18];20:31-4. Available from: http://www.ijoem.com/text.asp?2016/20/1/31/183834



  Introduction Top


Workers constitute a large and important sector of the world's population. The global labor force is about 2,600 million and 75% of this force is working in developing countries. The total labor force in India is estimated to be 317 million, in which the organized sector employs only 26.8 million (8.5%) while the unorganized sector employs as many as 290.2 million (91.5%). The Indian industry remains labor-intensive and often employs relatively inexpensive and hazardous technology due to financial constraints. Economic growth depends on the importance of safety and occupational health in the industries. [1] Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS) or workplace health and safety (WHS), is an area concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. The goals of OSH programs include fostering a safe and healthy work environment. [2]

Joint International Labour Organization (ILO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Committee on Occupational Health focuses on three different objectives: (i) The maintenance and promotion of workers' health and working capacity, (ii) the improvement of the working environment and work to become conducive to safety and health, and (iii) development of work organizations and working cultures in a direction, which supports the health and safety at work and in doing so also promotes a positive social climate and smooth operation and may enhance productivity of the undertakings. The concept of a working culture is intended in this context to mean a reflection of the essential value systems adopted by the undertaking concerned. Such a culture is reflected in practice in the managerial systems, personnel policy, principles for participation, training policies, and quality management of the undertaking. [3] The Occupational Health Safety Network (OHSN) is a secure electronic surveillance system developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to address health and safety risks among health care personnel. OHSN uses existing data to characterize the risk of injury and illness among health care workers. Hospitals and other health care facilities can upload the occupational injury data they already collect to the secure database for analysis and benchmarking with other de-identified facilities. NIOSH works with OHSN participants in identifying and implementing timely and targeted interventions. [4]


  Statement of the Problem Top


It is a study to evaluate the effectiveness of video-assisted teaching program on safety measures followed by the employees working in the silica-based industry in Puducherry, India.

Objectives

  • To assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of the subjects on safety measures against occupational hazard among employees working in the silica-based industry
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of video-assisted teaching program on safety measures against occupational hazard among employees working in the silica-based industry.


To associate the pretest knowledge, attitude, and practice score with selected demographic variables of the employees working in the silica-based industry.


  Hypotheses Top


H 1 --There will be a significant difference in the knowledge, attitude, and practice among the employees on safety measures followed in the silica-based industry before and after video-assisted teaching program.

H 2 --There will be a significant association among the knowledge, attitude, and practice, and selected demographic variables.


  Research Methodology Top


One group pretest and posttest preexperimental design was adopted for this study. The study was conducted in M/s ACE Glass Containers Ltd., which is situated in Puducherry, India. Based on a pilot study report, 105 samples were selected from the workmen category. Out of which, 45 samples were permanent workers and 60 were casual laborers. Reliability of the tool was established using split-half technique and it was found to be reliable with the reliability values for knowledge--the value alpha =0.87, for attitude =0.87, and for practices =0.70.

Video-assisted teaching program was provided to the employees in the workmen category who were selected for the study. The video-assisted teaching program included a brief knowledge about occupational health, occupational hazards, occupational diseases, general safety measures, personal protective equipment, medical measures, engineering measures, and legislation.

The researcher explained the purpose of the study to the workers. Informed consent was taken from each subject and the data were collected from the workers. Pretest was conducted from the participants who fulfilled the criteria. The demographic data were collected by the investigator using the interview technique. The knowledge of the subjects was assessed by using a self-administered questionnaire, their attitude was assessed by the Likert scale, and their practice of using protective devices was assessed by a checklist. It took 10-15 min for each worker to complete the pretest. Each day, around 15-20 workers were gathered in the factory dispensary following which preassessment video-assisted teaching programs were given to the subjects on occupational health, occupational hazards, and safety measures. Booklet was also given to each subject to enrich and reinforce his/her knowledge on the use of safety measures to promote the health of the workers.

After video-assisted teaching program, the investigator informed the date and time of posttest to all the subjects and posttest was conducted by using the same questionnaire after 1 week as per the schedule.


  Results and Discussion Top


The demographic data revealed that out of 105 subjects, 53 (50.5%) were in the age group of 30-39 years; 54 (51.4%) of them were from rural areas, 81 (77.1%) of them were married, 40 (38.1%) of them were technically educated, 60 (57.1%) subjects earned less than ₹3,000 per month, and 19 (18.1%) were working for 4-5 years in the same company. Most, i.e., 97 (92.4%) the subjects were on shift duty and the remaining 8 (7.6%) subjects were on regular duty from 8 PM to 4 PM.

[Table 1] shows the comparison of overall pretest and posttest knowledge score of the subjects where 57 (54.3%) subjects had inadequate knowledge and only 18 (17.1%) had adequate knowledge in the pretest. But after video-assisted teaching program, 98 (93.3%) subjects had adequate knowledge and 7 (6.7%) had moderately adequate knowledge.
Table 1: Comparison of overall pretest and posttest knowledge score of the subjects on safety measures


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[Table 2] shows that in the pretest, about 96 (91.4%) subjects had an uncertain attitude and only 9 (8.6%) subjects had a positive attitude. But in the posttest, almost all of them, i.e. 105 (100%) had a positive attitude toward the use of safety measures.
Table 2: Comparison of attitude score of the subjects between pretest and posttest


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[Table 3] represents that 84 (80%) subjects had adequate practice of using safety measures and 21 (20%) only had inadequate practice in pretest. But in posttest, 105 (100%) subjects were found to be adequately utilizing the safety measures. It was evident that the video-assisted teaching program was effective in improving their level of practice in the utilization of personal protective equipment from occupational hazards.
Table 3: Comparison of the practice score of the subjects between pretest and posttest


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The mean knowledge score of the subjects in pretest was found to be 21.06 with standard deviation (SD) of 4.96 [Table 4]. But after video-assisted teaching program, the mean knowledge score on safety measures was increased to 34.38 (out of 40) with SD of 2.33, which was statistically significant at P < 0.001 level. The mean attitude score on safety measures in pretest was found to be 45 with SD of 4.43. But after video-assisted teaching program, the mean attitude score on safety measures was increased to 54.48 with SD of 3, which was also found to be statistically significant at P < 0.001 level. The mean practice score on safety measures before video-assisted teaching program was 25.06 with SD of 0.92. But in the posttest, the mean practice score was found to be increased to 27.43 with the SD of 0.5, which was statistically significant at P < 0.001 level from which it was evident that the video-assisted teaching program was effective in improving the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of the subjects regarding safety measures.
Table 4: Comparison of the mean pretest and posttest scores on knowledge, attitude, and practice of the subjects


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Auni Fatin Nadia Chiek Desa, et al., (2013) stressed that the safety culture, employee involvement, employee attitude, leadership style, safety and health training, and effective communication may have an impact on OSH administration performances. [5]

Alan HS Chan, et al. (2011) recommended raising awareness of the concerns of the recycling workers' safety and health by advertising through the media and conducting comprehensive and intensive research so that the public would have a better understanding of the situation and start to be aware of occupational hazards. [6]

The study result revealed that there was a statistically significant association between the pretest knowledge and attitude score of the subjects with selected demographic variables such as their age, education, income, section of work and their experience. As the subjects' ages were above 50-60 years, they had a high mean knowledge score of 24.2 ± 6.38 and those who had technical educational qualification had a mean knowledge score of 24.6 ± 5.38, which was highly significant while comparing with the others. The subjects experienced for more than 5 years had a higher mean knowledge score of 23.52 ± 5.41, which was highly significant (P = 0.000***). Further, those who were working in the foundry section had mean knowledge score of 50.33, ±3.53, which was highly significant when compared to the others working in various other sections.

Similarly as the subjects age increases above 50-60 years, their mean attitude score was high 24.2 ± 6.38 and those who had technical education qualification had a favorable mean attitude score of 24.6 ± 5.38, which was highly significant while comparing with the others. The subjects who were experienced for more than 5 years had a favorable mean attitude score of 23.52 ± 5.41, which was highly significant (P = 0.000***) while comparing with the others' experiences. Those who were working in the foundry section had a favorable mean attitude score of 50.33 ± 3.53, which was highly significant comparing with others working in the other sections.

Nurshamshida Md Shamsudin, et al. (2015) highlighted the current issues in occupation-related injuries (ORIs) and occupational safety and health training (OSHT). Some of the elements of ORI identified in the literature were differences in age, young workforce, aging workforce, multigenerations, working experience, cognitive abilities, and occupations. The elements of OSHT have indicated that the elements of learning effectiveness in safety training are training instructions, training method, adult learner, and training design. Results showed significant positive relationships between elements of ORIs and elements of OSHT. [7]


  Summary and Conclusion Top


The study has revealed that video-assisted teaching program on OHS measures was effective in improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the subjects, which was statistically significant at P < 0.001 level. There was a statistically significant association between the pretest knowledge and attitude score of the subjects with selected demographic variables as their age, education, income, section of work, and their experience.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Brinda V. Prevention of Occupational Health Hazards among Stone Workers. Nightingale′s Nurs Times 2005;9:19-21.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Wikepedia. Occupational health and safety. Available from: http://en.wikepedia.org. [Last accessed on 2005 Jul 03].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
International labour Organization. Available from: http://www.ilo.org/Safework_bookshelf/Occupational Health Services and Practice.mht. [Last accessed on 2005 Jul 03].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
NIOSH. Available from: http://www.niosh.org/occupational health and safety.mht. [Last accessed on 2005 Jul 03].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Desa AF, Habidin NF, Hibadullah SN, Fuzi NM, Zamri FI. Occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) practices and OSHA performance in Malaysian automotive industry. J Stud Soc Sci 2013;4:1-15.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Chan AH, Leung PC. Occupational safety and health problems of workers in Hong Kong recycling industries - A preliminary ergonomic study. Proceedings of the International Multiconference of Engineers and Computer Scientists (IMECS), Hong Kong; 2011;Vol. 2.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Shamsudin NM, Mahmood NH. Relationships of learning in occupational safety and health training and occupational related injuries. International Conference on Human Capital and Knowledge Management (ICHCKM), Bandung, Indonesia; 2015.  Back to cited text no. 7
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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