Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine   Official publication of Indian Association of  0ccupational  Health  
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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 74-81

Occupational pesticide exposure, impaired DNA repair, and diseases


Department of Biotechnology, Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rupinder Kaur
Department of Biotechnology, Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib - 140 406, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_45_18

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Pesticides are a mixture of chemical substances used to kill pests. Apart from their toxicity to pests, thy affect nontarget organisms. They also generate free radicals producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can disturb cellular pathways by inhibiting various enzymes or receptors. Pesticides also induce oxidative DNA damage, DNA adducts, and single or double strand DNA breaks. Various mechanisms of DNA repair deal with such damages and help to maintain cell integrity. Alteration in DNA repair genes modulates the individual's susceptibility towards DNA repair and various diseases. Biological monitoring provides a useful tool for the estimation of genetic risk in populations exposed to pesticides. Large numbers of evidences show that occupational exposure to pesticides in agricultural workers has been associated with an increased incidence of various diseases such as cancer, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, reproductive disorders, and birth defects. In this review, we have discussed occupational pesticide exposure, various mechanisms of DNA damage caused by pesticides, DNA repair mechanisms, biomonitoring tools, and various diseases caused by pesticide exposure.






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