Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine   Official publication of Indian Association of  0ccupational  Health  
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     Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
May-August 2018
Volume 22 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 59-115

Online since Monday, October 1, 2018

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EDITORIAL  

Pregnancy risk assessment at the workplace p. 59
Ganesh K Kulkarni
DOI:10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_207_18  PMID:30319225
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TECHNICAL AND REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Cochlear proteins associated with noise-induced hearing loss: An update Highly accessed article p. 60
Ruchika K Jain, Shubhangi K Pingle, Rajani G Tumane, Lucky R Thakkar, Aruna A Jawade, Anand Barapatre, Minal Trivedi
DOI:10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_43_18  PMID:30319226
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the major occupational disease that has influence on the quality of life of mining workers. Several reports suggest NIHL is attributed to noise exposure at workplace and approximately 16% of hearing loss is due to it. NIHL occurs as a result of exposure to high-level noise (>85 dB) in the workplace. Noise disrupts proteins present in the micromachinery of the ear that is required for mechano-electric transduction of sound waves. High-level noise exposure can lead to hearing impairment owing to mechanical and metabolic exhaustion in cochlea, the major organ responsible for resilience of sound. Several key proteins of cochlea include tectorial membrane, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, and stereocilia are damaged due to high-level noise exposure. Numerous studies conducted in animals have shown cochlear proteins involvement in NIHL, but the pertinent literature remains limited in humans. Detection of proteins and pathways perturbed within the micromachinery of the ear after excessive sound induction leads toward the early identification of hearing loss. The situation insisted to present this review as an update on cochlear proteins associated with NIHL after an extensive literature search using several electronic databases which help to understand the pathophysiology of NIHL.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Occupational pesticide exposure, impaired DNA repair, and diseases p. 74
Karashdeep Kaur, Rupinder Kaur
DOI:10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_45_18  PMID:30319227
Pesticides are a mixture of chemical substances used to kill pests. Apart from their toxicity to pests, thy affect nontarget organisms. They also generate free radicals producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can disturb cellular pathways by inhibiting various enzymes or receptors. Pesticides also induce oxidative DNA damage, DNA adducts, and single or double strand DNA breaks. Various mechanisms of DNA repair deal with such damages and help to maintain cell integrity. Alteration in DNA repair genes modulates the individual's susceptibility towards DNA repair and various diseases. Biological monitoring provides a useful tool for the estimation of genetic risk in populations exposed to pesticides. Large numbers of evidences show that occupational exposure to pesticides in agricultural workers has been associated with an increased incidence of various diseases such as cancer, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, reproductive disorders, and birth defects. In this review, we have discussed occupational pesticide exposure, various mechanisms of DNA damage caused by pesticides, DNA repair mechanisms, biomonitoring tools, and various diseases caused by pesticide exposure.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Work–life balance among Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) workers in Anekal Town, South India p. 82
Neethu George, Pretesh Rohan Kiran, T Sulekha, Joseph S Rao, Prem Kiran
DOI:10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_25_18  PMID:30319228
Context: Buses take up more than 90% of public transport in Indian cities and serve as a cheap and convenient mode of transport for all classes of society. However, the well-being of employees of this mode of transport is paramount in passenger and personal safety. As in any job, the person has to balance work and personal issues. Work–life balance is a concept that supports the effort from an employee in any sector to split their time and energy to balance work and personal lives. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using a structured interview schedule was conducted among 103 Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) workers in Anekal town, Karnataka, to determine the work–life balance among them. The total score was classified into high, medium, and low work balance categories. The scores for each domain were analyzed separately to derive at the factors which act against work–life balance. Results: Low work–life balance was found in 26 (25.2%) of all subjects. The important factors that affected work–life balance were identified to be shift work, work load, night duties, social functions, and negative attitude of family members. The reasons that motivated them to work were to support family (35%), future security (33%), and to clear personal debts (15.5%). Conclusion: Given the low work–life balance in a quarter of several individuals in this study, there is a need to address this issue to ensure necessary balance and safety and well-being of both road transport employees and passengers.
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Protect the protector: Morbidity and health behavior among police personnel in national capital region of India p. 86
Jitendra K Meena, Rajesh Kumar, GS Meena
DOI:10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_28_18  PMID:30319229
Introduction: At the time of selection, police personnel undergo various health and fitness tests but subsequently health assessments are not done regularly. Unhealthy lifestyle and challenging work environment predispose them to various somatic sequelae, including cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and psychological disorders, etc., There is limited epidemiological data on the morbidity profile among police personnel in India. Aim: To study the morbidity profile and the treatment-seeking behavior among police personnel in National Capital Region (NCR), India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and November, 2014 on 300 police personnel working in the NCR, India. We administered a predesigned, pretested questionnaire (α = 0.63) to the study participants based on World Health Organization-STEPS tool for assessing morbidity profile, lifestyle risk factors, and treatment-seeking behavior after obtaining informed consent from the study participants. Results: Health complaints were reported by around half (n = 149, 49.6%) of the participants with the morbidity risk of 0.71 per person. The most common complaints were related to the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system. Only around half of the affected participants took any treatment. Hospitalization rate reflected from past 1-year hospital admissions among participants was (n = 23, 7.7%). Data analysis suggested morbidity status of police personnel to be significantly associated with lifestyle risk factors such as abdominal obesity (n = 129, 86.5%), obstructive sleep apnea (n = 54, 36.2%), and distress (n = 48, 32.2%). Conclusion: Busy and challenging work life and poor control of health lead to high morbidity among police personnel. Regular health checks and lifestyle promotional activities are highly recommended to maintain a healthy police force.
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Impaired pulmonary lung functions in workers exposed to bagasse: Is obesity an added risk? p. 92
Yogita S Khade, Shrilaxmi Bagali, Manjunatha Aithala
DOI:10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_32_18  PMID:30319230
Context: Effect of obesity and dust exposure on lung functions. Aim: To assess the pulmonary functions in asymptomatic, dust-exposed sugarcane factory workers with obesity as an added risk. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in one of the reputed sugarcane factories in Karnataka. One hundred and fifty asymptomatic male workers working in sugarcane factory were included in the study. Based on exposure to sugarcane dust and body mass index (BMI), subjects were categorized into normal weight (not exposed to sugarcane dust), overweight and obese (not exposed to sugarcane dust), and overweight and obese (exposed to sugarcane dust). Adiposity markers such as waist circumference and hip circumference were measured; waist hip ratio, waist stature ratio, and body fat% were calculated. Lung volumes such as forced vital capacity (FVC in L), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1in L), forced expiratory flow during 25–75% of expiration (FEF25–75%in L/s), and FEV1/FVC%, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR in L/min) were measured by digital spirometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparison between groups was done by one-way analysis of variance with post hoc analysis. Results: Significant lower values for FEV1in obese and PEFR among overweight and obese exposed to dust compared to overweight and obese not exposed to dust. Conclusions: We observed significant decrease in FEV1(L) in obese workers exposed to dust and significant lower PEFR (L/min) in overweight and obese workers exposed to dust, indicative of obstructive pattern of lung disease as a result of occupation-related sugarcane dust exposure in overweight and obese workers in whom already some lung functions are impaired owing to their BMI status, thus indicating that obesity is an added risk.
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Assessment of silicosis awareness among stone mine workers of Rajasthan state p. 97
Subroto Nandi, Nishant Burnase, Anand Barapatre, Pallavi Gulhane, Sarang Dhatrak
DOI:10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_63_18  PMID:30319231
Background: Silicosis is a known occupational lung disease prevalent among stone mine workers. It is commonly characterized by cough and shortening of breath, and is occasionally associated with tuberculosis and lung carcinogenicity. Silicosis is one of the major occupational disease all over the world and poses detrimental health effects to the workers in developing countries like India. Objective: The present study was conducted to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of silicosis among stone mine workers. Subjects and Methods: It was a personal questionnaire-based study conducted among stone mine workers of Jodhpur and Nagaur district of Rajasthan, India. The study was conducted during October 2016, and was based on close-ended questions related to silicosis awareness. The study subjects (n = 305) were 30 years or more. The questionnaire was divided into different sections: demographic characteristics, knowledge of silicosis, lifestyle, and educational level. Results: The results of the study revealed that education or literacy highly affects the knowledge about silicosis among stone mine workers. The awareness index was found nonsignificant for the alertness of silicosis in contrast to regions, age groups, and habit of two regions and was significant for literacy in two regions. Conclusion: This study concluded that the education level of mine workers affected the knowledge of silicosis. Free seminars, symposiums, and medical camps should be organized to make miners more aware of silicosis.
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Evaluation of heat stress in construction site of metro rail in Chennai p. 101
Ajit C Kulkarni, Krishnan Srinivasan
DOI:10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_51_18  PMID:30319232
Introduction: Tunnel boring machine (TBM) is used for constructing a tunnel. Worn out cutting tools have to be changed under difficult working conditions. Temperature is high and the work is strenuous. Work is often carried out under increased atmospheric pressure to ward off water ingress. Workers are at a very high risk. Aim: To evaluate heat stress during hyperbaric intervention on TBM during Chennai Metro Rail construction. Methodology: One hundred and eighty-eight miners after a thorough medical examination worked under increased atmospheric pressure for more than 45,000 man hours. Mitigating actions to protect workers by reducing temperature and increasing ventilation. Medical monitoring was done to identify and treat potential victims. Results: 52° C was the highest temperature recorded. Most times work was carried out at a temperature range of 34–45° C. Conclusions: Motivations of monetary gains, reduced working hours, and food supplements played a major role in work execution without any untoward incidence.
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Evaluation of training program “Basic concepts of occupational health” for students of Diploma in Sanitary Inspector Course and way forward p. 106
Ankit Prabhubhai Viramgami, Harsiddha Gulabdas Sadhu
DOI:10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_79_18  PMID:30319233
Background: India requires massive numbers of occupational health experts for identifying and catering to the occupational health needs of more than 400-million workforce; however, in the absence of sufficient number of experts, it is important to sensitize and educate different groups of students and workforces regarding various aspects of occupational health. In the same context, a training program for the students of Diploma in Sanitary Inspector was arranged at the National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH). Aim: To assess the effectiveness of the training program in terms of gain in knowledge and imparting training programs more effectively in future. Methods: Examinations in the form of pretest and post test were conducted during training program for 920 participating students. Mean, standard deviation, and test of significance were applied using SPSS software. Result: Significant improvement in the mean test score after the training program was observed. Improvement in the mean score showed significant difference regarding age and educational qualifications but not with gender. Conclusion: Results enabled us to identify weak areas of the program where lesser improvement in knowledge was observed, which require more emphasis in future workshops for achieving efficient productive outcomes.
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The question on the potential cancerous effects of hair dyes: The monitoring of the oxidative stress induced by the hair dyes with the dosage of the salivary free radicals p. 109
Roberto Menicagli, O Marotta, Laura Menicagli
DOI:10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_94_18  PMID:30319234
Background: Many studies indicate the difficulty on assessing the possible carcinogenic effects of hair dyes, for their high time of the latence. Objectives: Our objective is to determine their prognostic index, by monitoring the oxidative stress, produced exposed to hair dyes, in hairdressers, and in consumers, by measuring the concentration of salivary malondialdehyde. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples are provided by the hairdressers, working in private (NP) or shopping center (CC), by users of hair dyes, for at least 10 years, and by a control group. The values of malondialdehyde are determined using the thiobarbituric acid method. The results are statistically analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney test. Results: Comparing the three groups with tests for K-independent Kruskal–Wallis samples (dyed vs. control vs. dyed at least 10 years), there is a significant difference for the amount of MDA (P < 0.001). Proceeding for the median MDA in the subgroups by testing for two independent U-samples of Mann–Whitney: control versus dyed,P < 0.001; control versus CC,P = 0.013; control versus NP,P < 0.001; control versus 10 years,P = 0.111; CC versus NP,P = 0.001; CC versus 10 years,P = 0.462; and NP versus 10 years,P < 0.001. Discussion: In hairdressers, the increase of the salivary MDA versus control group is statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05), with an accentuation in small workplace, for age, probably for a more direct exposure to dyes' gas. Another statistically significant increase of salivary MDA is for the consumers versus control group, also function of the increasing age. Conclusions: The results of this study show a significant increase of oxidative stress in the hairdressers. This factor involves a potential carcinogenic risk, especially for the bladder, difficult to assess in the short term.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Asbestos and mesothelioma: A comment p. 113
Sergei V Jargin
DOI:10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_49_18  PMID:30319235
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How to prevent and manage green tobacco sickness? p. 115
Dilaram Acharya, Kwan Lee
DOI:10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_93_18  PMID:30319236
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