Year : 2018  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 177--178

Nipah virus: South India in panic mode


Jasmine Shanthi Kamath, Shruthi Hegde, Vidya Ajila 
 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Nitte (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Jasmine Shanthi Kamath
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Nitte (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Karnataka
India




How to cite this article:
Kamath JS, Hegde S, Ajila V. Nipah virus: South India in panic mode.Indian J Occup Environ Med 2018;22:177-178


How to cite this URL:
Kamath JS, Hegde S, Ajila V. Nipah virus: South India in panic mode. Indian J Occup Environ Med [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Mar 24 ];22:177-178
Available from: http://www.ijoem.com/text.asp?2018/22/3/177/247622


Full Text



The current outbreak of Nipah virus (NiV) infection in South India is a matter of concern not only to the general public but also to health care providers. This zoonosis causes disease in both animals and humans. Fruit bats (Macrochiroptera of Pteropodidae Family, Pteropus genus) are the natural host of the virus. Nipah is a single-stranded RNA virus, which survives for long periods in favorable conditions in the saliva and urine of fruit bats, contaminated fruit, and fruit juice. NiV was first identified during an outbreak of disease in Malaysia in the year 1998, where it caused 265 human cases of encephalitis, with 40% mortality rate. The Bangladesh NiV outbreak in 2004 was attributed to consumption of date palm sap contaminated by infected fruit bats. Since then, NiV has become endemic to Bangladesh, and outbreaks are commonly seen during winter times, where date palm sap is harvested.[1],[2],[3]

India saw its first outbreak in Siliguri district, West Bengal in 2001, with 74% cases ending in fatality. Again in 2007, another outbreak was seen in West Bengal in Nadia district with 100% fatality rate.[4],[5] The current outbreak in the State of Kerala has caused 10 deaths, including one health care worker.[6]

Nipah virus infection results in rapidly progressing severe illness affecting the central nervous and respiratory systems. In humans, the average incubation period is 0-2 weeks. Initial illness begins with fever, headache, and drowsiness followed by disorientation, mental confusion, coma, and death. Most of the patients presenting with neurologic illness also show some amount of respiratory distress.[7]

People, who came in contact with infected hospitalized patients especially health care workers and visitors to hospital, were infected after being exposure to them in Siliguri suggestive of person-to-person transmission.[8]

In animal models, it has been shown that, the NiV affects the nasal epithelium and gains direct entry to the CNS through the cribriform plate resulting in neurologic symptoms.[9]

Hence, patients infected or who have come in close contact with an infected person must be quarantined and isolated and health care workers involved with treating suspected or confirmed NiV patients, should use standard precautions and improve infection control.

Because saliva is a medium for viral transmission, dental professionals are at an increased risk because of aerosols generated during routine procedures.

Initial diagnosis is through virus isolation using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The virus can be isolated in early stages from secretions of nose, throat, and other bodily fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), urine, and blood. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can be used to identify IgG and IgM antibodies.

Because most of these tests require well-equipped laboratories, there is an urgent need for these facilities to be made available even in small rural centers during an outbreak.

Treatment is limited to supportive care. Ribavirin, an anti-viral drug has shown promising results in vitro, but human investigations have not been conclusive. The Nipah G glycoprotein has been identified as a target for using Passive immunization using human monoclonal antibody, which has shown beneficial effects in post-exposure treatment in animal models.[10]

The main approach is to prevent NiV in humans. In the case of a known outbreak, eating fruits fallen on the ground, drinking fresh fruit juice, and consuming date palm sap must be avoided. Health care providers must use Standard infection control practices and proper barrier nursing methods must be employed in infected cases to prevent further spread.

 Conclusion



Nipah virus is one of the deadliest viral infections known to man. As definitive treatment is not available, treatment is limited to supportive care. Thus, prevention is the only option. The general public and health care providers need to be educated regarding modes of transmission to avoid panic and further spread.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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