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2006| September-December | Volume 10 | Issue 3
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Phthalate exposure and health outcomes
SK Rastogi, C Kesavachandran, Farzana Mahdi, Amit Pandey
September-December 2006, 10(3):111-115
Phthalates are used in commercial products as softners of plastics, solvents in perfumes and additives to hair sprays, lubricants and insect repellents. The wide spread use of phthalate results in multiple human exposure routes i.e., ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure. In the present review, a detailed account of respiratory toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, endocrine disruptors and genotoxicity of human exposure to phthalate is mentioned in detail.
Assessment of noise level of a medium scale thermal power plant
GC Kisku, SK Bhargava
September-December 2006, 10(3):133-139
Noise monitoring using "Cirrus sound level" was carried out for 30 min at a height of 1.5 m and 1 m away from the chest during October, 2002 covering 73 locations of ~781 MW power plant. Event Leq and LN cycle were studied to identify the noisy machines and to generate baseline data. Lowest avg. noise 70.37 dB(A) was found at control room while the highest avg, 95.91 dB(A) at F. D. Fan with average 88.04
6.08 dB(A). Compressors generate second highest noise, 89.98 dB(A). Operators of F.D. Fans are having a fare chance of exposure with >90 dB(A) i.e., beyond the prescribed standard. Noise may not jeopardize employee's life immediately but might be the cause of neurobehavioral change, psychological stress and unhappiness in daily life without showing the symptoms of chronic /acute diseases. Measured data has been compared with TLV of American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The quality of life of industrial worker is one of the prime factors for production; hence it should not be neglected. Revision of occupational Indian noise standard is recommended at par with International / European standards. Noise-reducing options are also described. This investigation may help the implementing authority to adopt better policy for better work environment.
Behaviour based safety in organizations
September-December 2006, 10(3):102-106
This paper shall be useful in understanding and application of the concept and process of behavior based safety
for safety professionals concerned about correcting unsafe behaviors for reduction of accidents and promoting safe behaviors for developing injury-free culture in their organizations.
Occupational health and safety: Role of academic institutions
Abhishek Jaiswal, Binod K Patro, Chandrakant S Pandav
September-December 2006, 10(3):97-101
The occupational disease burden is growing at an unprecedented rate. The profile of occupational diseases has also changed over the period of time as a result of modernization, market liberalization and globalization which now encompasses minor allergy and injuries, systemic infections and diseases as well as the life-threatening leukemia and cancers. Trained human resources in the field of occupational health and safety are far below the requirement. Training in the area of occupational health and industrial medicine is not keeping pace with the changing industrial growth and technologies. There is an urgent need for strengthening skills, developing newer competencies and broadening our knowledge in occupational health and safety and disaster management. Traditional training in occupational health, needs to be supplemented with techniques of environmental epidemiology, environmental impact assessment and environmental risk assessment. The academic community should take the first step in demonstrating its leadership to address the long neglected concerns of occupational health and safety.
Alterations in glutathione system in adult and pup rat brains following chronic aluminum exposure
Priya Anand, B Nehru
September-December 2006, 10(3):128-132
Glutathione is a major regulator of the redox equilibrium in cells, so its deficit weakens the tissue resistance to oxidants. Several pathologies that affect the nervous system involve oxidative stress, possibly associated with the decrease of glutathione content. The nervous system is particularly susceptible to oxidative insults and is therefore dependent on its glutathione content, especially during development stage, where brain metabolism and growth are maximal. To study the involvement of glutathione in brain redox homeostasis, we set up an experimental model of aluminum (Al) neurotoxicity (AlCl3+ 100 mg/kg b.wt) for eight weeks to both developed and developing rats. In the developing group exposure of Al for 60 days was done post natally, 21 days to feeding mother (lactation period) and 39 days to pup rats. Similar dose for eight weeks were given to adult rats. The result showed a statistically significant (
<0.01) decrease in Total glutathione, reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione in both cerebrum and cerebellum region of pup brains. A similar decrease was observed in adult group. Also, aluminum exposure resulted in significant decrease in ATPase activity in both the regions of the brain of developing and developed rat brain. Thus the present study indicates that aluminum exposure (100 mg/kg b.wt) to both adult and pup rat results in the decline of glutathione system which alters the redox ratio significantly. Further, aluminum exposure also decreases the ATPase activity which in turn could affect the glutathione synthesis.
Maximal expiratory flow volume values evaluation among female quartz grinders
Nellore Mohan Rao, Ramnath Takiar, Yashwant K Sharma
September-December 2006, 10(3):124-127
A recent review in silica dust exposed workers focused on airway obstruction and the variables used were forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1 and FEV1%. The maximal expiratory flow volume (MEFV) values i.e., peak expiratory flow (PEF), FEF75, FEF50 and FEF25 are not only useful to differentiate obstructive and restrictive type of functional abnormalities, but also the site of airway obstruction i.e., larger airways by PEF, FEF75 or smaller airways by FEF50, FEF25. Hence, studies on MEFV values are needed.
To identify the site of airway obstruction among female quartz grinders.
Settings and Design:
Quartz grinding industry workers in Chota Udepur (Gujarat) by cross sectional study.
Materials and Methods:
The MEFV values were measured among 106 female quartz grinders using SP-10 computerized spirometer and predicted and percentage of predicted values were derived.The average MEF values were compared according to age (<24; 25-34; 35-44 and >45 yrs). The percentage predicted MEFV values were compared between normal and chest X-ray abnormal (silicosis and silico-tuberculosis) workers and between normal and abnormal spirometry (restrictive (R), obstructive (O) and R+O) workers.
Summary statistics, ANOVA and c2-test.
Significantly high reduction in MEFV values in > 45 yr. Workers; significant loss in silicosis and silicotuberculosis pronouncing higher in silicotuberculosis workers; significantly higher impairment R+O type of functional abnormal than other type of abnormalities. These indicated that site of obstruction is both in larger and smaller airways.
The MEFV values indicated that the site of obstruction is in both in smaller and larger airways.
Pulmonary health status of ginning factory women laborers in Tirupur, India
JV Jannet, GP Jeyanthi
September-December 2006, 10(3):116-120
Ginning factories discharge large amounts of cotton dust, which leads to decreased pulmonary function in the exposed subjects. An attempt was made to study the pulmonary functions of women laborers employed in ginning factory located in Tirupur, a textile based city in Coimbatore district of Tamilnadu, India. The women were subjected to spirometric analysis and chest X-ray examinations. Occupational lung disorders that included byssinosis, chronic bronchitis and occupational asthma were studied in these women by assessing their pulmonary function tests, clinical symptoms, age and duration of exposure to cotton dust. Standard normal distribution, Chi-square analysis and multiple correlation analysis were the statistical methods applied in this study. Significant occupational acute and chronic pulmonary changes were observed in these women. Both age and duration of exposure together had a significant impact on their pulmonary function as per the results of the multiple correlation statistical analysis. There was a significant distribution of women with pulmonary impairment in all the sections of the ginning factory. Some recommendations were also suggested for controlling the occupational lung diseases caused by cotton dust.
Health of health care professionals
September-December 2006, 10(3):95-96
Heat exposure effects among firefighters
Harshad C Patel, Nellore Mohan Rao, Asim Saha
September-December 2006, 10(3):121-123
Firefighting is a hazardous occupation. The firefighters (FF) in extinguishing fire are often exposed to extreme heat of 1200oC to 1400oC temperature. The heat exposure effects may occur from hot air, radiant heat, contact with hot surfaces, endogenous heat produced by the body during exercise, which cannot be cooled during fire. A significant morbidity and mortality from exposure to heat was reported in other countries but not from India.
: Present study focuses on prevalence of heat exposure effects i.e., heat exhaustion, heat syncope, heat pyrexia and heat cramps recorded among fire fighters of Ahmedabad fire brigade.
Ahmedabad fire brigade (AFB) of Ahmedabad municipal corporation.
Materials and Methods:
Present study focuses on prevalence of heat exposure effects i.e., heat exhaustion, heat syncope, heat pyrexia and heat cramps recorded between 262 FF of AFB. This prevalence's were observed among firemen those directly exposed to heat in combating fire and others (load trucks, pump trucks etc.) that assist the firemen. These were seen in different age groups (<30; 31-45 and >45 yrs), duration of exposure (<10; 11-20 and >21 yrs).The number of accidents associated with heat exposure was analyzed.
Prevalence comparison by Chi-square test.
The results revealed that a total of 53 (20.0%) FF reported health exposure effects and were higher among firemen than other groups. Heat exhaustion 48 (18.3%); heat syncope 11(4.2%); heat pyrexia 11 (4.2%) and heat cramps 16(6.1%) were reported indicating significant occurrence of heat stress among firefighters. In majority of FF, the frequency of occurrence was observed at only one instance. There were no differences according to age or duration of exposure. Among 53 FF with heat exposure effects, accident were reported in 10 (18.9%) suggesting that heat stress may be responsible for this.
Overall, Significant occurrence of heat exposure effect among FF and wearing cooling jackets/other heat proof materials may be precautionary cum preventive measure.
Serum tumour markers in malignant mesothelioma
Pallavi Rao, Srikanth Narayanaswamy
September-December 2006, 10(3):107-110
Malignant mesothelioma is a rare malignancy of the body cavities with dismal prognosis. It has been a diagnostic dilemma for years with many clinical and pathological mimics. Discovery of a reliable tumour marker will definitely be of value in screening individuals with a history of asbestos exposure, diagnosis, treatment and follow up of malignant mesothelioma. Many tumour markers have been studied and speculatively associated with the malignant mesothelioma, but much still needs to be proven.
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