Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine   Official publication of Indian Association of  0ccupational  Health  
 Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 Users Online:292

  IAOH | Subscription | e-Alerts | Feedback | Login 

Home About us Current Issue Archives Search Instructions
   Next article
   Previous article 
   Table of Contents
    Similar in PUBMED
     Search Pubmed for
     Search in Google Scholar for
   Related articles
    Article in PDF (115 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

   Historical Backg...
   Importance of HWE
   Components of HWE
   Factors Affectin...
   Avoiding HWE
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded490    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 115    

Recommend this journal


Year : 2009  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 77-79

Healthy worker effect phenomenon

Cairn Energy India Pvt. Ltd, 4th Floor, Vipul Plaza, Suncity, Sector 54, Gurgaon-122 002, Haryana, India

Date of Web Publication20-Aug-2009

Correspondence Address:
Divyang Shah
Cairn Energy India Pvt. Ltd, 4th Floor, Vipul Plaza, Suncity, Sector 54, Gurgaon-122 002, Haryana
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0019-5278.55123

Rights and Permissions



The Healthy Worker Effect (HWE) phenomenon has been under debate since some years. Some epidemiologists regard HWE as an ordinary method problem while others consider it a field of science by itself. This article gives definitions of HWE explained with historical background; discusses factors affecting it and suggests methods to minimize problems associated with it.

Keywords: Healthy Worker Effect, occupational epidemiology, selection bias

How to cite this article:
Shah D. Healthy worker effect phenomenon. Indian J Occup Environ Med 2009;13:77-9

How to cite this URL:
Shah D. Healthy worker effect phenomenon. Indian J Occup Environ Med [serial online] 2009 [cited 2023 Feb 3];13:77-9. Available from:

  Introduction Top

The Healthy Worker Effect (HWE) phenomenon has been under debate since a few years. Some epidemiologists consider HWE an ordinary method problem while others consider it a field of Science by itself. In this article I shall explain various definitions of HWE with their historical background, necessary to understand the phenomena. I will also discuss factors affecting the phenomena and ways to deal with them.

  Definitions Top

"HWE is a phenomenon initially observed in studies of occupational diseases: Workers usually exhibit lower overall death rates than the general population because the severely ill and chronically disabled are ordinarily excluded from employment" - Last, 1995. [1]

Another definition by McMichael (1976) [2] who first gave it the name is: "HWE refers to the consistent tendency of the actively employed to have a more favorable mortality experience than the population at large."

However, other occupational epidemiologists describe HWE as the reduction of mortality or morbidity of occupational cohorts when compared with the general population.

Let's try to understand it by an example.

Doll and coworkers [3] studed on gas workers exposed to carbonized coal. They measured standardized mortality rate (SMR i.e. mortality rates after eliminating possible effect of age differences in workers and general population) for groups of gas workers with different kinds of exposure. Following were the observations.

Mortality (SMR-, all causes) of gas workers compared with national experience

Heavy Exposure 105

Intermediate 90

No Exposure 84

(Doll et al. 1965).

SMR is less than 100 in unexposed workers.

  Historical Background Top

This phenomenon was first observed in 1885 when William Ogle [4] found mortality rate dependent on difficulty of occupation; some occupations repel and some others attract workers. In other words, the more vigorous occupations had a relatively lower mortality rate when compared with the death rate in occupations of an easier character or among the unemployed. Almost 100 years later, in 1974, McMichael coined the term HWE to describe this phenomena. [5] A year later, Goldsmith (1975) [6] pointed out that most industrially employed cohorts should be expected to have better life expectancy than unemployed persons. SMR close to unity (100) is used as an indication of absence or a low degree of HWE.

  Importance of HWE Top

Any occupational study looking for workers' health could potentially face this problem. It is a type of bias. The question is - Is it a serious bias? Most studies indicate that HWE will reduce the association between exposure and outcome by an average of 20-30%. Looking into the previous example of British gas workers:

SMR in non exposed worker is less than 100. So this reduction in SMR could be leading us to conclude that the condition among workers is good and no harmful effect was seen. This is not true. It may partially or completely mask excess mortality or morbidity caused by harmful exposure.

Trying to understand HWE was not easy considering the ongoing debate on its nature. Some scientists consider HWE a source of selection bias; others consider it confounding. A third group considers it a mix of both while some others look at it as a comparison problem.

Selection Bias
"Error due to systematic differences in characteristics between those selected for study and those not." The selection bias occurred from the initial choosing of workers (mainly healthy workers) and factors that influence the continuity of work such as leaving the work because of sickness. To put it in simple words, HWE refers to the initial hiring into workforce and subsequent factors which influence continuing employment.


"A situation in which a measure of the effect of an exposure on risk is distorted because of the association of exposure with other factor(s) that influence the outcome under study".

The confounding factor is the (unmeasured) health status of the group of employees.

Going back to our example, GHS is associated with exposure. (Employment in industry and associated with outcome death).

A third school of thought considers HWE a confounder and selection bias since it is very difficult to differentiate between them. The last opinion was a comparison problem. According to Olli Miettinen; [7] the best reference for a population under study (as an example A) in a specific time is with the same population at the same time without the exposure - which is impossible.[Additional file 1], [Additional file 2]

  Components of HWE Top

Healthy Hire Effect

Employers have the right to reject certain persons for employment because of physical disabilities, or poor general health. An employer will exclude those obviously at high risk. Person selection may also be influenced by habits and physical conditions such as weight, smoking, or alcoholism. This effect will vary according to the labor situation, i.e. during period of labor shortages less fit workers could be included in the labor force whereas during periods of labor surplus employers can be choosy.

Healthy Worker Survivor Effect

Workers who do not have strong motivation to work because of health problems do not present themselves for employment (self-selection). They generally change jobs frequently or retire early. They change their job for different reasons including health. The effect is reduced after 15 years of entry to the industry.


The length of time the population has been followed. HWE is a characteristic of actively employed workers. Incomplete follow-up of the out-migrating section of the cohort could result in failure to track every individual to determine his vital status. Reduction in health status could occur without any relation to exposure.

Monson (1986) [8] divided the follow-up into two phases; a dynamic phase and a stable plateau. The dynamic phase is characterized by increased relative risk (RR) with years of follow-up. The RR becomes constant after some years of follow-up (plateau).

Beneficial Effect of Work

Improved access to healthcare, routine disease screening and physical exercise is the beneficial effect of work. While there is a wide agreement on the first three factors, there is debate on the extent of the beneficial effect. Doll [3] considered low mortality a result of true benefit of work on health.

  Factors Affecting HWE Top

HWE is not constant. It varies depending on choice of comparison population. The factors affecting HWE also vary between studies.

Time Related Factors

Age at Hire

Workers with high age will be highly influenced by selective processes as the proportion of persons attaining the required level is likely to be smaller in the old age group.


RR for all causes of mortality [Table 1]

Age at risk

The age at any point in follow-up that shows the outcome (death). Increasing age at risk will increase the period of follow-up and thus reduce the HWE.


RR for all causes of mortality by age at risk [Table 2]

Duration of Employment

Increasing the duration of employment will increase the effect since many sick people will leave or shift to safer work.

Socioeconomic Status

HWE is stronger in more qualified jobs. Professional workers demonstrate a stronger overall HWE. based on job classification; high socioeconomic status of work (white collar) has high healthy worker effects since it requires higher qualifications.


Usually the effect is stronger for females than males.

  Avoiding HWE Top

Many efforts have been made to minimize HWE. The most straightforward way is to avoid using general population as a reference group. Use active workers from another industry who do not have the same exposure. Another way to minimize HWE is to compare rates of health outcomes of interest between individuals with high exposure and those with low or no exposures. This is useful when the external reference group is not ideal. However, it is not likely that all occupational hazards pose gradient effects on human health (many industries show uniform exposure). One can also reduce HWE by starting the study after a latency of time e.g. one year, five years etc. where the HWE is high during this period. Another way to minimize HWE is to include the experience of every person who ever worked in a particular factory or industry

  Conclusion Top

HWE is caused by an inadequate reference group (i.e. comparison problem). If we find an ideal reference group then HWE will not exist. It is a complex, problem creating bias comprising of several factors and may be modified by a number of factors. It is not possible to make generalizations in a particular case of HWE.[10]

  References Top

1.Last J. A Dictionary of Epidemiology. 3 rd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 1995.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.McMichael AJ. Standardized mortality ratios and the "healthy worker effect": Scratching beneath the surface. J Occup Med 1976;18:165-8.   Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Doll R, Fish REW, Gammon EJ, Gunn W, Hughes GO, Tyrer FH, Wilson W. Mortality of gas workers with special reference to cancers of the lung and bladder, chronic bronchitis, and pneumoconiosis. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 1965;22:1-12.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Ogle W. Letter to the Registrar-General on the mortality in the registration districts of England and Wales during the ten years 1871-80. Supplement to the 45 th Annual Report of the Registrar General of Births, Deaths, and Marriages, in England: 1985.   Back to cited text no. 4    
5.McMichael AJ, Spirtas R, Kupper LL. An epidemiologic study of mortality within a cohort of rubber workers, 1964-72. J Occup Med 1974;16:458-64.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Goldsmith JR. What do we Expect from an Occupational Cohort. J Occup Med 1975;17:126-31.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Miettinen OS. Commentary: Epidemiologic methods: beyond clinical medicine, beyond epidemiology. Eur J Epidemiol 2004;19:737-9.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Monson RR. Observations on the healthy worker effect. J Occup Med 1986;28:425-33.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Fox AJ, Collier PF. Low mortality rates in industrial cohort studies due to selection for work and survival in the industry. Br J Prev Soc Med 1976;30:225-30.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Delzell E, Monson RR. Mortality among rubber workers. III. Cause-specific mortality, 1940-1978. J Occup Med 1981;23:677-84.  Back to cited text no. 10    


  [Table 1], [Table 2]

This article has been cited by
1 The relationship between cleaning product exposure and respiratory and skin symptoms among healthcare workers in a hospital setting: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Kelly T. L. Dang, Ameth N. Garrido, Shivonne Prasad, Marina Afanasyeva, Joshua C. Lipszyc, Ani Orchanian-Cheff, Susan M. Tarlo
Health Science Reports. 2022; 5(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 The impact of manual patient handling on work ability: A cross-sectional study in a Brazilian hospital
João Marcos Bernardes, Melissa Spröesser Alonso, Juan Gómez-Salgado, Carlos Ruiz-Frutos, Esperanza Begoña García-Navarro, Adriano Dias
Nursing Open. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Uranium: an overview of physicochemical properties, exposure assessment methodologies, and health effects of environmental and occupational exposure
Abhisha M. Rathod, Steven Verpaele, Michelle Kelvin, Kaj V. Sullivan, Matthew I. Leybourne
Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Radon exposure and risk of cerebrovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis in occupational and general population studies
Liping Lu, Yijia Zhang, Cheng Chen, Robert William Field, Ka Kahe
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Retentissement psychologique de la crise sanitaire du COVID-19 sur les salariés
C. Barberousse, C. Dabezies, O. Lamarche, A. Lachaize
Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Pulmonary Asbestos Fiber Burden Is Related to Patient Survival in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma
Sanna Laaksonen, Eeva Kettunen, Eva Sutinen, Ilkka Ilonen, Tapio Vehmas, Timo Törmäkangas, Jari Räsänen, Henrik Wolff, Marjukka Myllärniemi
Journal of Thoracic Oncology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Changes in life expectancy and disease burden in Norway, 1990–2019: an analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
Benjamin Clarsen, Magne Nylenna, Søren Toksvig Klitkou, Stein Emil Vollset, Carl Michael Baravelli, Anette Kocbach Bølling, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Gerhard Sulo, Mohsen Naghavi, Maja Pasovic, Muhammad Asaduzzaman, Tone Bjørge, Anne Elise Eggen, Terje Andreas Eikemo, Christian Lycke Ellingsen, Øystein Ariansen Haaland, Alemayehu Hailu, Shoaib Hassan, Simon I Hay, Petur B Juliusson, Adnan Kisa, Sezer Kisa, Johan Månsson, Teferi Mekonnen, Christopher J L Murray, Ole F Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, Dominic Sagoe, Kam Sripada, Andrea Sylvia Winkler, Ann Kristin Skrindo Knudsen
The Lancet Public Health. 2022; 7(7): e593
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Work-family balance in the construction industry: Why gender analysis matters to develop sustainable interventions
Mélanie Lefrançois, Mélanie Trottier
Ergonomics. 2022; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Variability of lumbar spinal alignment among power- and weightlifters during the deadlift and barbell back squat
Ulrika Aasa, Victor Bengtsson, Lars Berglund, Fredrik Öhberg
Sports Biomechanics. 2022; 21(6): 701
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Current Unemployment, Unemployment History, and Mental Health: A Fixed-Effects Model Approach
Liina Junna, Heta Moustgaard, Pekka Martikainen
American Journal of Epidemiology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Dietary Patterns and Their Relationship to Hypertension and Obesity in Indonesia
Oyedolapo A Anyanwu, Sara C Folta, Fang Fang Zhang, Kenneth Chui, Virginia R Chomitz, Martha I Kartasurya, Elena N Naumova
Current Developments in Nutrition. 2022; 6(6)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Time Course and Risk Profile of Work-Related Neck Disability: A Longitudinal Latent Class Growth Analysis
Yanfei Xie, Brooke K Coombes, Lucy Thomas, Venerina Johnston
Physical Therapy. 2022; 102(6)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Anemia, Weight Status, and Fatigue Among Farmworkers in California
Leslie V. Olivares, Reina Engle-Stone, Charles D. Arnold, Chelsea E. Langer, Marc B. Schenker
Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 2022; 64(8): e459
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Two-year follow-up of exposure, engineering controls, respiratory protection and respiratory health among workers at an indium-tin oxide (ITO) production and reclamation facility
R Reid Harvey, M Abbas Virji, Brie H Blackley, Marcia L Stanton, Bruce C Trapnell, Brenna Carey, Terrance Healey, Kristin J Cummings
Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2022; : oemed-2021
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Graduate students locked down? PhD students’ satisfaction with supervision during the first and second COVID-19 lockdown in Belgium
Theun Pieter van Tienoven, Anaïs Glorieux, Joeri Minnen, Petrus te Braak, Bram Spruyt, Carlos Alberto Zúniga-González
PLOS ONE. 2022; 17(5): e0268923
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Causal inference for oncology: past developments and current challenges
Erica E. M. Moodie
The International Journal of Biostatistics. 2022; 0(0)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Condição domiciliar de (In)Segurança Alimentar dos trabalhadores dos bancos de alimentos
Ana Carolina Nogueira Garcia, Heloísa de Souza Fonseca, Marina Zogbi Jardim , Nayhanne Gomes Cordeiro , Simone Cardoso Pereira Lisboa, Janice Henriques da Silva Amaral, Bruna Vieira de Lima Costa
Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional. 2022; 29: e022022
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Relationship between plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and traditional cardiovascular risk factors among active-duty military personnel in the Republic of Serbia
Nenad Ratkovic, Milena Pandrc, Vitomir Peric, Maja Stojanovic, Nemanja Rancic
Vojnosanitetski pregled. 2022; 79(7): 714
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Female Sexual Dysfunction and Pelvic Floor Muscle Function Associated with Systemic Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Study
Barbora Hermánková, Maja Špiritovic, Hana Šmucrová, Sabína Oreská, Hana Štorkánová, Martin Komarc, Karel Pavelka, Ladislav Šenolt, Jirí Vencovský, Radim Becvár, Michal Tomcík
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(1): 612
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Risk Factors among Migrant Workers in Kuwait
Anwar Ali, Shaikhah Alfajjam, Janvier Gasana
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(7): 3943
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Mental Health Outcomes in Australian Healthcare and Aged-Care Workers during the Second Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Sarah L. McGuinness, Josphin Johnson, Owen Eades, Peter A. Cameron, Andrew Forbes, Jane Fisher, Kelsey Grantham, Carol Hodgson, Peter Hunter, Jessica Kasza, Helen L. Kelsall, Maggie Kirkman, Grant Russell, Philip L. Russo, Malcolm R. Sim, Kasha P. Singh, Helen Skouteris, Karen L. Smith, Rhonda L. Stuart, Helena J. Teede, James M. Trauer, Andrew Udy, Sophia Zoungas, Karin Leder
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(9): 4951
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Social Network Analysis on the Mobility of Three Vulnerable Population Subgroups: Domestic Workers, Flight Crews, and Sailors during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Hong Kong
Weijun Yu, Cheryll Alipio, Jia’an Wan, Heran Mane, Quynh C. Nguyen
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(13): 7565
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 The Effect of Fire Smoke Exposure on Firefighters’ Lung Function: A Meta-Analysis
Joana V. Barbosa, Mariana Farraia, Pedro T. B. S. Branco, Maria Conceição M. Alvim-Ferraz, Fernando G. Martins, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Sofia I. V. Sousa
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(24): 16799
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Working Hours, Sleep Disturbance and Self-Assessed Health in Men and Women: A Multilevel Analysis of 30 Countries in Europe
Aziz Mensah, Susanna Toivanen, Martin Diewald
Frontiers in Public Health. 2022; 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Psychosocial Work Stress and Health Risks – A Cross-Sectional Study of Shift Workers From the Hotel and Catering Industry and the Food Industry
Bettina Hunger, Reingard Seibt
Frontiers in Public Health. 2022; 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Obesity and sickness absenteeism among health workers in a private hospital in South Africa
Therese de Wet, Willem H. Kruger, Gina Joubert
South African Family Practice. 2022; 64(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors for coronary artery disease and elevated fibrinogen among active military personnel in Republic of Serbia: A cross-sectional study
Milena Pandrc, Nenad Ratkovic, Vitomir Peric, Maja Stojanovic, Vanja Kostovski, Nemanja Rancic
Journal of Medical Biochemistry. 2022; 41(2): 221
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Cancer Incidence and Mortality among Petroleum Industry Workers and Residents Living in Oil Producing Communities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Felix M. Onyije, Bayan Hosseini, Kayo Togawa, Joachim Schüz, Ann Olsson
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8): 4343
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Shift Work and Dry Eye Disease in the Korean Working Population: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Joonho Ahn, So-Jung Ryu, Jihun Song, Hyoung-Ryoul Kim
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(10): 5492
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Health Workers in Germany—A Retrospective Study on Progression Risk and Use of Preventive Therapy
Nika Zielinski, Johanna Stranzinger, Hajo Zeeb, Jan Felix Kersten, Albert Nienhaus
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(13): 7053
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Environmental and Occupational Short-Term Exposure to Airborne Particles and FEV1 and FVC in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Alan da Silveira Fleck, Margaux L. Sadoine, Stéphane Buteau, Eva Suarthana, Maximilien Debia, Audrey Smargiassi
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(20): 10571
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Effects of Activity Tracker-Based Counselling and Live-Web Exercise on Breast Cancer Survivors during Italy COVID-19 Lockdown
Andrea Di Blasio, Teresa Morano, Federica Lancia, Gianluca Viscioni, Angelo Di Iorio, Simona Grossi, Ettore Cianchetti, Lucia Cugusi, Stefano Gobbo, Marco Bergamin, Anna D’Eugenio, Laura Masini, Massimo Rinaldi, Maria Teresa Scognamiglio, Anastasios Vamvakis, Giorgio Napolitano
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology. 2021; 6(2): 50
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Does an increase in working hours affect mortality risk? The relationship between working hours and mortality among the older population
M. Anil Mercan, Hande Barlin, Nazire Begen
Work. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Syncope in Commercial Pilots and New Regulatory Guidance
Ryan A. Anderton, Stuart J. Mitchell, Sean S. ONunain
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance. 2021; 92(8): 642
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Occupational Allergic Sensitization Among Workers Processing King Crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) and Edible Crab (Cancer pagurus) in Norway and Identification of Novel Putative Allergenic Proteins
Marte R. Thomassen, Sandip D. Kamath, Berit E. Bang, Roni Nugraha, Shuai Nie, Nicholas A. Williamson, Andreas L. Lopata, Lisbeth Aasmoe
Frontiers in Allergy. 2021; 2
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Airborne Occupational Exposures and Lung Function in the Lifelines Cohort Study
Md Omar Faruque, Judith M. Vonk, Hans Kromhout, Roel Vermeulen, Ute Bültmann, H. Marike Boezen
Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 2021; 18(1): 60
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Social gradient in health-related quality of life among urban middle-age residents in Limassol, Cyprus: research article
P. Ellina, N. Middleton, E. Lambrinou, C. Kouta
BMC Public Health. 2021; 21(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Workplace musculoskeletal problems in occupational therapy students
Joanne Morabito, Stefania Penkala, Kristy Coxon
BMC Public Health. 2021; 21(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Shoulder pain prevalence by age and within occupational groups: a systematic review
Christopher J. Hodgetts, Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde, Amber Beynon, Bruce F. Walker
Archives of Physiotherapy. 2021; 11(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Exposure to formaldehyde and asthma outcomes: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and economic assessment
Juleen Lam, Erica Koustas, Patrice Sutton, Amy M. Padula, Michael D. Cabana, Hanna Vesterinen, Charles Griffiths, Mark Dickie, Natalyn Daniels, Evans Whitaker, Tracey J. Woodruff, A. Kofi Amegah
PLOS ONE. 2021; 16(3): e0248258
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Airborne occupational exposures and inflammatory biomarkers in the Lifelines cohort study
Md. Omar Faruque, Judith M. Vonk, Ute Bültmann, H. Marike Boezen
Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2021; 78(2): 82
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Developmental Differences in Burnout Among High School Athletes in the United States: A Gendered Perspective
Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu, Bailey Sommerfeld, Tao Zhang
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Sexual function in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: a cross-sectional study
Barbora Hermánková, Maja Špiritovic, Sabína Oreská, Hana Štorkánová, Martin Komarc, Martin Klein, Herman Mann, Karel Pavelka, Ladislav Šenolt, Jirí Vencovský, Michal Tomcík
Rheumatology. 2021; 60(11): 5060
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Considerations when assessing the effect of nightshifts on hypertension prevalence
Maxwell Everett, Soko Setoguchi, Aayush Visaria
Journal of Hypertension. 2021; 39(12): 2534
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Shift and night work during pregnancy and preterm birth—a cohort study of Swedish health care employees
Manzur Kader, Carolina Bigert, Tomas Andersson, Jenny Selander, Theo Bodin, Helena Skröder, Mikko Härmä, Maria Albin, Per Gustavsson
International Journal of Epidemiology. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Cardiovascular risk in high-hazard occupations: the role of occupational cardiology
Iain T Parsons, Edward D Nicol, David Holdsworth, Norbert Guettler, Rienk Rienks, Constantinos H Davos, Martin Halle, Gianfranco Parati
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Effects of activity tracker-based counselling and live-web exercise on breast cancer survivors’ sleep and waking time during Italy’s COVID-19 lockdown
Andrea Di Blasio, Teresa Morano, Federica Lancia, Gianluca Viscioni, Angelo Di Iorio, Simona Grossi, Ettore Cianchetti, Roberto Pippi, Stefano Gobbo, Marco Bergamin, Anna D’eugenio, Laura Masini, Massimo Rinaldi, Antonino Grassadonia, Anastasios Vamvakis, Giorgio Napolitano
Home Health Care Services Quarterly. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Cardiovascular and Self-Reported Recovery in Two-Shift Systems
Lisa Stieler, Bettina Hunger, Reingard Seibt
Journal of Psychophysiology. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Happiness and life expectancy by main occupational position among older workers: Who will live longer and happy?
Mariona Lozano, Aïda Solé-Auró
SSM - Population Health. 2021; 13: 100735
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 COVID-19 vaccine coverage in health-care workers in England and effectiveness of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine against infection (SIREN): a prospective, multicentre, cohort study
Victoria Jane Hall, Sarah Foulkes, Ayoub Saei, Nick Andrews, Blanche Oguti, Andre Charlett, Edgar Wellington, Julia Stowe, Natalie Gillson, Ana Atti, Jasmin Islam, Ioannis Karagiannis, Katie Munro, Jameel Khawam, Meera A Chand, Colin S Brown, Mary Ramsay, Jamie Lopez-Bernal, Susan Hopkins, N Andrews, A Atti, H Aziz, T Brooks, CS Brown, D Camero, C Carr, MA Chand, A Charlett, H Crawford, M Cole, J Conneely, S D'Arcangelo, J Ellis, S Evans, S Foulkes, N Gillson, R Gopal, L Hall, VJ Hall, P Harrington, S Hopkins, J Hewson, K Hoschler, D Ironmonger, J Islam, M Kall, I Karagiannis, O Kay, J Khawam, E King, P Kirwan, R Kyffin, A Lackenby, M Lattimore, E Linley, J Lopez-Bernal, L Mabey, R McGregor, S Miah, EJM Monk, K Munro, Z Naheed, A Nissr, AM O'Connell, B Oguti, H Okafor, S Organ, J Osbourne, A Otter, M Patel, S Platt, D Pople, K Potts, M Ramsay, J Robotham, S Rokadiya, C Rowe, A Saei, G Sebbage, A Semper, M Shrotri, R Simmons, A Soriano, P Staves, S Taylor, A Taylor, A Tengbe, S Tonge, A
The Lancet. 2021; 397(10286): 1725
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 Effectiveness of early versus delayed exercise and nutritional intervention on segmental body composition of sarcopenic elders - A randomized controlled trial
Ke-Vin Chang, Wei-Ting Wu, Kuo-Chin Huang, Der-Sheng Han
Clinical Nutrition. 2021; 40(3): 1052
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 COVID-19 and healthcare workers: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Mandana Gholami, Iman Fawad, Sidra Shadan, Rashed Rowaiee, HedaietAllah Ghanem, Amar Hassan Khamis, Samuel B. Ho
International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2021; 104: 335
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Induced sputum abnormalities in gas station attendants
Tiago Henrique Garcia da Silva, Ada Clarice Gastaldi, Marcel Koenigkam Santos, Bruno Spinosa de Martinis, José Baddini-Martinez
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 Rheumatoid arthritis in low-level toluene-exposed workers based on nationwide medical surveillance data in Korea
Young-Sun Min, Sungho Lee, Mingi Kim, Yeon-Soon Ahn
American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 2021; 64(4): 245
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 Suicide mortality rates in farm-related occupations and the agriculture industry in the United States
Ahmed A. Arif, Oluwaseun Adeyemi, Sarah B. Laditka, James N. Laditka, Tyrone Borders
American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 2021; 64(11): 960
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 Survival advantage of cohort participation attenuates over time: results from three long-standing community-based studies
Zihe Zheng, Casey M. Rebholz, Kunihiro Matsushita, Judith Hoffman–Bolton, Michael J. Blaha, Elizabeth Selvin, Lisa Wruck, A. Richey Sharrett, Josef Coresh
Annals of Epidemiology. 2020; 45: 40
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 Health Effects of Trimellitic Anhydride Occupational Exposure: Insights from Animal Models and Immunosurveillance Programs
Debajyoti Ghosh, Jonathan A. Bernstein
Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology. 2020; 59(1): 61
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 Mortality among workers employed in the mining industry in the United States: A 29-year analysis of the National Health Interview Survey—Linked Mortality File, 1986-2014
Ahmed A. Arif, Oluwaseun Adeyemi
American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 2020; 63(10): 851
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
59 Understanding coastal public health: Employment, behavioural and psychosocial factors associated with geographical inequalities. The HUNT study, Norway
Sofie L. Hjorthen, Erik R. Sund, Vera Skalická, Steinar Krokstad
Social Science & Medicine. 2020; 264: 113286
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 Socioeconomic inequalities in type 2 diabetes in employed individuals, nonworking spouses and pensioners
Batoul Safieddine, Stefanie Sperlich, Johannes Beller, Karin Lange, Jelena Epping, Juliane Tetzlaff, Fabian Tetzlaff, Siegfried Geyer
SSM - Population Health. 2020; 11: 100596
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Occupational exposures and genetic susceptibility to occupational exposures are related to sickness absence in the Lifelines cohort study
Md. Omar Faruque, Kim De Jong, Judith M. Vonk, Hans Kromhout, Roel Vermeulen, Ute Bültmann, H. Marike Boezen
Scientific Reports. 2020; 10(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 Work-related injury and illness in the Victorian healthcare sector: a retrospective analysis of workers' compensation claim records
Ting Xia, Alex Collie
Australian Health Review. 2020; 44(1): 24
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 Stepping up: the need for Proactive Employer Investment in Safeguarding Seafarers’ Mental Health and Wellbeing
Helen Sampson, Neil Ellis
Maritime Policy & Management. 2020; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
64 Lung function in oil spill responders 4-6 years after the Deepwater Horizon disaster
Kaitlyn G. Lawrence, Alexander P. Keil, Stavros Garantziotis, David M. Umbach, Patricia A. Stewart, Mark R. Stenzel, John A. McGrath, W. Braxton Jackson, Richard K. Kwok, Matthew D. Curry, Lawrence S. Engel, Dale P. Sandler
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 2020; 83(6): 233
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 Into the deep blue sea: A review of the safety of recreational diving in people with diabetes mellitus
Theocharis Koufakis, Spyridon N. Karras, Omar G. Mustafa, Dimos Karangelis, Pantelis Zebekakis, Kalliopi Kotsa
European Journal of Sport Science. 2020; 20(1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
66 Occupational exposures and odds of gastric cancer: a StoP project consortium pooled analysis
Shailja C Shah, Paolo Boffetta, Kenneth C Johnson, Jinfu Hu, Domenico Palli, Monica Ferraroni, Shoichiro Tsugane, Gerson Shigueaki Hamada, Akihisa Hidaka, David Zaridze, Dmitry Maximovich, Jesus Vioque, Eva M Navarrete-Munoz, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Lina Mu, Stefania Boccia, Roberta Pastorino, Robert C Kurtz, Matteo Rota, Rossella Bonzi, Eva Negri, Carlo La Vecchia, Claudio Pelucchi, Dana Hashim
International Journal of Epidemiology. 2020; 49(2): 422
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
67 Characteristics and incidence of contact dermatitis among hairdressers in north-eastern Italy
Linda Piapan, Marcella Mauro, Chiara Martinuzzo, Francesca Larese Filon
Contact Dermatitis. 2020; 83(6): 458
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
68 Obesity prevalence in Brazilian firefighters and the association of central obesity with personal, occupational and cardiovascular risk factors: a cross-sectional study
Fernanda Camargo Damacena, Thatiany Jardim Batista, Lorena Rocha Ayres, Eliana Zandonade, Karla Nívea Sampaio
BMJ Open. 2020; 10(3): e032933
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
69 Health literacy and related health behaviour: a community-based cross-sectional study from a developing country
Reema A Karasneh, Sayer I Al-Azzam, Karem H Alzoubi, Lana K Rababah, Suhaib M Muflih
Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research. 2020; 11(3): 215
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
70 Association Between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Hospital Admissions for Depression in 75 Chinese Cities
Xuelin Gu, Tongjun Guo, Yaqin Si, Jinxi Wang, Wangjian Zhang, Furong Deng, Libo Chen, Chen Wei, Shao Lin, Xinbiao Guo, Shaowei Wu
American Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 177(8): 735
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
71 Caring for Coronavirus Healthcare Workers: Lessons Learned From Long-Term Monitoring of Military Peacekeepers
Christer Lunde Gjerstad, Hans Jakob Bøe, Erik Falkum, Andreas Espetvedt Nordstrand, Arnfinn Tønnesen, Jon Gerhard Reichelt, June Ullevoldsæter Lystad
Frontiers in Psychology. 2020; 11
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
72 Desempeño de las pruebas combinadas de IgM e IgG rápidas en la vigilancia ocupacional de COVID-19 en empresas colombianas
Álvaro J. Idrovo, José Moreno-Montoya , Carlos E. Pinzón-Flórez
Biomédica. 2020; 40(Supl. 2): 139
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
73 Epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 cases and estimates of the reproductive numbers 1 month into the epidemic, Italy, 28 January to 31 March 2020
Flavia Riccardo, Marco Ajelli, Xanthi D Andrianou, Antonino Bella, Martina Del Manso, Massimo Fabiani, Stefania Bellino, Stefano Boros, Alberto Mateo Urdiales, Valentina Marziano, Maria Cristina Rota, Antonietta Filia, Fortunato D'Ancona, Andrea Siddu, Ornella Punzo, Filippo Trentini, Giorgio Guzzetta, Piero Poletti, Paola Stefanelli, Maria Rita Castrucci, Alessandra Ciervo, Corrado Di Benedetto, Marco Tallon, Andrea Piccioli, Silvio Brusaferro, Giovanni Rezza, Stefano Merler, Patrizio Pezzotti
Eurosurveillance. 2020; 25(49)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
74 Resilience factors in nursing workers in the hospital context
Silmar Maria da Silva, Patricia Campos Pavan Baptista, Fábio José da Silva, Mirian Cristina dos Santos Almeida, Rosimeire Angela de Queiroz Soares
Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP. 2020; 54
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
75 Evaluation of team effectiveness and personal empathy for associations with professional quality of life and job satisfaction in companion animal practice personnel
Christina N. Pizzolon, Jason B. Coe, Jane R. Shaw
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2019; 254(10): 1204
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
76 Maternal occupational exposures to nanoscale particles and small for gestational age outcome in the French Longitudinal Study of Children
G. Manangama, L. Migault, S. Audignon-Durand, C. Gramond, C. Zaros, G. Bouvier, P. Brochard, L. Sentilhes, A. Lacourt, F. Delva
Environment International. 2019; 122: 322
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
77 Protective Strategies Against Dysphonia in Teachers: Preliminary Results Comparing Voice Amplification and 0.9% NaCl Nebulization
Maria Lúcia Vaz Masson, Tânia Maria de Araújo
Journal of Voice. 2018; 32(2): 257.e1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
78 Annual Burden of Occupationally-Acquired Influenza Infections in Hospitals and Emergency Departments in the United States
Rachael M. Jones, Yulin Xia
Risk Analysis. 2018; 38(3): 442
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
79 Sleep deprived and unprepared
L. Reinke, J.E. Tulleken
British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2017; 119(1): 11
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
80 Inter- and intra- observer reliability of risk assessment of repetitive work without an explicit method
Kristina Eliasson, Peter Palm, Teresia Nyman, Mikael Forsman
Applied Ergonomics. 2017; 62: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
81 Construction d’une méthodologie exploratoire concernant les besoins des travailleurs
Fabrice Travaglianti, Jean-François Orianne, François Pichault
Revue internationale de psychosociologie et de gestion des comportements organisationnels. 2015; HS(Supplément): 119
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
82 Quality of life and neck pain in nurses
Lucy E. Joslin,Christopher R. Davis,Patricia Dolan,Emma M. Clark
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. 2014; 27(2): 236
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
83 The Association between Long Working Hours and Self-Rated Health
Jun-Taek Song,Goeun Lee,Jongho Kwon,Jung-Woo Park,Hyunrim Choi,Sinye Lim
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2014; 26(1): 2
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
84 Recovery and well-being among Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) pilots
Mirjam Radstaak,Sabine A.E. Geurts,Debby G.J. Beckers,Jos F. Brosschot,Michiel A.J. Kompier
Applied Ergonomics. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
85 Reliability and Validity of the Work Role Functioning Questionnaire (Spanish Version)
Jose M. Ramada,Consol Serra,Benjamin C. Amick,Femke I. Abma,Juan R. Castaño,Gemma Pidemunt,Ute Bültmann,George L. Delclos
Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
86 Work-related stress in midlife is associated with higher number of mobility limitation in older age—results from the FLAME study
Jenni Kulmala,Timo Hinrichs,Timo Törmäkangas,Mikaela B. von Bonsdorff,Monika E. von Bonsdorff,Clas-Håkan Nygård,Matti Klockars,Jorma Seitsamo,Juhani Ilmarinen,Taina Rantanen
AGE. 2014; 36(6)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
87 The economic burden of disease by industry: Differences in quality-adjusted life years and associated costs
Davina V. Tolbert,Kathryn E. McCollister,William G. LeBlanc,David J. Lee,Lora E. Fleming,Peter Muennig
American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 2014; 57(7): 757
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
88 If it is published in the peer-reviewed literature, it must be true?
Louis K. Wagner
Pediatric Radiology. 2014; 44(S3): 468
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
89 Progress towards Healthy Ageing in Europe: to promote active healthy lifestyles in 45-68 year olds through workplace, rather than traditional health-related settings
Elspeth Anne Gibson
Working with Older People. 2014; 18(2): 51
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
90 Inverse Effects of Midlife Occupational and Leisure Time Physical Activity on Mobility Limitation in Old Age-A 28-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study
Timo Hinrichs,Mikaela B. von Bonsdorff,Timo Törmäkangas,Monika E. von Bonsdorff,Jenni Kulmala,Jorma Seitsamo,Clas-Håkan Nygård,Juhani Ilmarinen,Taina Rantanen
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2014; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
91 The Role of Midlife Occupational Complexity and Leisure Activity in Late-Life Cognition
R. Andel,M. Silverstein,I. Kareholt
The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
92 Impact of the New American and British Guidelines on the Management and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in a Spanish Working Population
Carlos Brotons,Eva Calvo-Bonacho,Irene Moral,María Teresa García-Margallo,María Victoria Cortés-Arcas,Mireia Puig,Gastón Vázquez-Pirillo,Luis Miguel Ruilope
Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition). 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
93 Impacto de las nuevas guías estadounidense y británica en el manejo y el tratamiento de las dislipemias en una población laboral española
Carlos Brotons,Eva Calvo-Bonacho,Irene Moral,María Teresa García-Margallo,María Victoria Cortés-Arcas,Mireia Puig,Gastón Vázquez-Pirillo,Luis Miguel Ruilope
Revista Española de Cardiología. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
94 Cause and effect in studies on unemployment, mental health and suicide: a meta-analytic and conceptual review
A. Milner,A. Page,A. D. LaMontagne
Psychological Medicine. 2013; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
95 Ergonomics and Bronchoscopy
Christopher R. Gilbert,Jason A. Akulian,David Feller-Kopman,Lonny Yarmus
Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology. 2013; 20(2): 113
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
96 Chronic health conditions and work ability in the ageing workforce: the impact of work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health
Wendy Koolhaas,Jac J. L. Klink,Michiel R. Boer,Johan W. Groothoff,Sandra Brouwer
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 2013;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
97 Social rank and inhalant drug use: The case of lança perfume use in São Paulo, Brazil
Sanchez, Z.M. and Noto, A.R. and Anthony, J.C.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2013; 131(1-3): 92-99
98 In-depth study of the workersæ perspectives to enhance sustainable working life: Comparison between workers with and without a chronic health condition
Koolhaas, W. and Van Der Klink, J.J.L. and Vervoort, J.P.M. and De Boer, M.R. and Brouwer, S. and Groothoff, J.W.
Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. 2013; 23(2): 170-179
99 Ergonomics and bronchoscopy: A survey of the american association of bronchology and interventional pulmonology
Gilbert, C.R. and Akulian, J.A. and Feller-Kopman, D. and Yarmus, L.
Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology. 2013; 20(2): 113-120
100 Assessment of framingham cardiovascular disease risk among militaries in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Al-Dahi, S. and Al-Khashan, H. and Al Madeer, M.A.M. and Al-Saif, K. and Al-Amri, M.D.S. and Al-Ghamdi, O. and Al-Helali, N. and Selim, M. and Mishriky, A.M.
Military Medicine. 2013; 178(3): 299-305
101 Investigating individual- and area-level socioeconomic gradients of pulse pressure among normotensive and hypertensive participants
Matricciani, L.A. and Paquet, C. and Howard, N.J. and Adams, R. and Coffee, N.T. and Taylor, A.W. and Daniel, M.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(2): 571-589
102 In-Depth Study of the Workers’ Perspectives to Enhance Sustainable Working Life: Comparison Between Workers With and Without a Chronic Health Condition
Wendy Koolhaas,Jac J. L. Klink,Johanna P. M. Vervoort,Michiel R. Boer,Sandra Brouwer,Johan W. Groothoff
Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. 2013; 23(2): 170
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
103 Social rank and inhalant drug use: The case of lança perfume use in São Paulo, Brazil
Zila M. Sanchez,Ana R. Noto,James C. Anthony
Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2013; 131(1-2): 92
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
104 Employment contracts and health selection: Unhealthy employees out and healthy employees in?
Wagenaar, A.F. and Kompier, M.A.J. and Houtman, I.L.D. and Van Den Bossche, S.N.J. and Taris, T.W.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2012; 54(10): 1192-1200
105 Impact of employment contract changes on workersæ quality of working life, job insecurity, health and work-related attitudes
Wagenaar, A.F. and Kompier, M.A.J. and Houtman, I.L.D. and van den Bossche, S.N.J. and Taris, T.W.
Journal of Occupational Health. 2012; 54(6): 441-451
106 Effect of the type of population on estimates of mean body mass index and prevalence of overweight and obesity: A systematic review of studies of Portuguese adults
Carreira, H., Pereira, M., Azevedo, A., Lunet, N.
Annals of Human Biology. 2012; 39(3): 223-238
107 Musculoskeletal symptoms and work ability among agricultural machinery operators
Milani, D., Monteiro, M.S.
Work. 2012; 41(sup 1): 5721-5724
108 Employment Contracts and Health Selection
Alfred F. Wagenaar,Michiel A. J. Kompier,Irene L. D. Houtman,Seth N. J. van den Bossche,Toon W. Taris
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2012; 54(10): 1192
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
109 Impact of Employment Contract Changes on Workers^|^apos; Quality of Working Life, Job Insecurity, Health and Work-related Attitudes
Alfred F. Wagenaar,Michiel A.J. Kompier,Irene L.D. Houtman,Seth N. J. van den Bossche,Toon W. Taris
Journal of Occupational Health. 2012; 54(6): 441
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
110 Effect of the type of population on estimates of mean body mass index and prevalence of overweight and obesity: A systematic review of studies of Portuguese adults
Helena Carreira,Marta Pereira,Ana Azevedo,Nuno Lunet
Annals of Human Biology. 2012; 39(3): 223
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
111 Prevalence and consequences of musculoskeletal symptoms in symphony orchestra musicians vary by gender: a cross-sectional study
Helene M Paarup, Jesper Baelum, Jonas W Holm, Claus Manniche, Niels Wedderkopp
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2011; 12(1): 223
[VIEW] | [DOI]
112 Relationship of Cardiovascular Disease to Stress and Vital Exhaustion in an Urban, Midwestern Police Department
Sandra L. Ramey, Yelena Perkhounkova, Nancy R. Downing, Kennith R. Culp
AAOHN Journal. 2011; 59(5): 221
[VIEW] | [DOI]
113 Musculoskeletal Disorders and Ergonomics in Dermatologic Surgery: A Survey of Mohs Surgeons in 2010
Christine A. Liang, Vicki J. Levine, Stephen W. Dusza, Elizabeth K. Hale, Kishwer S. Nehal
Dermatologic Surgery. 2011; : n/a
[VIEW] | [DOI]
114 Towards a sustainable healthy working life: associations between chronological age, functional age and work outcomes
W. Koolhaas, J. J. L. van der Klink, J. W. Groothoff, S. Brouwer
The European Journal of Public Health. 2011;
[VIEW] | [DOI]
115 Chronic non-communicable disease risk factor survey 2010 among University of the West Indies Staff at Cave Hill, Barbados
Morris, E. and Unwin, N. and Ali, E. and Brathwaite-Graham, L. and Samuels, T.A.
West Indian Medical Journal. 2011; 60(4): 452-458


Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article