|Year : 2011 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 59-63
Musculoskeletal pain and its associated risk factors in residents of national capital region
V Bihari, C Kesavachandran, BS Pangtey, AK Srivastava, N Mathur
Division of Epidemiology, CSIR - Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||29-Nov-2011|
A K Srivastava
Division of Epidemiology, CSIR - Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow - 226 001, Uttar Pradesh
Source of Support: CSIR Network project (NWP-17), Conflict of Interest: CSIR Network project (NWP-17)
Background: Musculoskeletal (MS) pain is responsible for poor quality of life and decreased productivity. Objective information about the burden of musculoskeletal disorders among the general community in India is scanty, and the few reports that exist are based on a small sample size. Materials and Methods: This paper examines the issue of MS pain and its associated risk factors in a cross-sectional study of 2086 subjects from National Capital Region (NCR). Results: Overall prevalence of MS pain was found to be 25.9%. Pain was found to be more frequent among females (31.3%) as compared with males (20.9%). Significant association of pain in joints/limbs/knee/lower legs with obesity (OR = 2.1, P < 0.001) and high body fat (OR = 2.2, P < 0.001) was established. More than 50% of the subjects complained of backache. Conclusions: Our findings confirm that MS pain is a significant burden of disease among the residents of NCR. Women and subjects doing heavy work load, like agriculture and dairy farming, constitute the chief demographic groups. It is high time that a policy is framed to reduce this load of sickness.
Keywords: General population, India, musculoskeletal pain, National Capital Region
|How to cite this article:|
Bihari V, Kesavachandran C, Pangtey B S, Srivastava A K, Mathur N. Musculoskeletal pain and its associated risk factors in residents of national capital region. Indian J Occup Environ Med 2011;15:59-63
|How to cite this URL:|
Bihari V, Kesavachandran C, Pangtey B S, Srivastava A K, Mathur N. Musculoskeletal pain and its associated risk factors in residents of national capital region. Indian J Occup Environ Med [serial online] 2011 [cited 2022 May 25];15:59-63. Available from: https://www.ijoem.com/text.asp?2011/15/2/59/90375
| Introduction|| |
The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among the general population in India is not well documented. A cross-sectional study of MSD in slums of Mumbai by Pingle et al.  and a study by Mahajan et al.  on the prevalence of rheumatic disorders in Jammu are the only studies reported in the general population. However, few studies from different occupational settings ,l,,, are available.
Complaints of musculoskeletal (MS) pain/discomfort are associated with physical disability, and affect the health-related quality of life. , MS impairment is the most common chronic impairment in developed as well as in developing countries, as nearly 25% of the adult subjects suffer from chronic MS pain.  In spite of the enormous global impact, these disorders do not receive the attention they deserve by the medical profession, policy makers or the media and are not considered national health priorities.  This is because MS diseases are perceived to be less serious than cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, AIDS and cancer, while MSD are largely chronic, non-fatal conditions and are perceived to be a consequence of aging. The United Nations and World Health Organization (WHO) declared the decade 2000-2010 as a bone and joint decade with the aim of increasing the understanding of the burden posed by MSD and improving the health-related quality of life. 
This paper reports the findings of a community-based cross-sectional study of more than 2000 subjects living in Gurgaon and NOIDA, which are part of National Capital Region (NCR), India. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the MS pain and the associated risk factors in the NCR.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Study Sample and Selection Process
Two thousand and eighty-six subjects of all age groups and both sexes from Gurgaon (1060) and NOIDA (1026) in the NCR were studied. The details of sample size from each village of NOIDA and Gurgaon represented in [Figure 1]. The sample size was calculated to be 1418 considering an expected prevalence rate of 18% in the general population, ,,,,,, with precision of 2% and confidence limit of 95%. Households were selected using a systematic random sample using the list of households of these areas as the sampling frame.
All the identified residents were approached through household visits by social workers and requested to participate in the study on the basis of voluntary informed consent. The participation of the study subjects was ensured by motivating the community leaders, teachers, doctors, etc. through social workers. Ninety percent of the registered population turned up for the study.
Survey areas and number of subjects studied in each area are shown in [Figure 1]. Subjects of both sexes in the age range of 10-70 years were included in the study.
Clearance was obtained from the Institutional Human Ethical Committee before starting the study.
(a) Detailed History : Personal, social and occupational details of each subject were collected through a structured interview method and all information was noted on a pre-tested questionnaire.
The personal details comprised information regarding age, occupation, dietary practices, smoking, addictions, education and income.
(b) Clinical Examination : Information regarding location and degree of pain, medications, etc. was collected through a structured interview. A questionnaire was developed to include the above information and was pre-tested in the field before usage. The investigation depended on self-reported symptoms along with their location. A pain diagram was prepared showing a sketch of the human body in a standing posture (rear view) along with body locations marked with arrows. During the interview, each subject was asked to pinpoint the body location(s) where pain was felt at the time of interview or the preceding 24 h. Information about pain in the neck, shoulders, upper back, upper arms, lower back, forearms, wrists, hip/buttocks, thighs, knees, lower legs and ankles was recorded in separate datasheets for each individual.
A general clinical examination of each subject was done to rule out chronic morbidities and to make a probable diagnosis where possible.
Body Composition Measurements
Body fat percentage and body mass Index (BMI) were measured using the bioelectric impedance analysis-based body fat monitor (Model: Omron HBF-352; Omron Healthcare Co. Ltd., 24 Yamanoshita-cho Yamanouchi Ukyo-ku Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 615-0084, Japan). Height was measured using a stadiometer and weight was measured using a manual personal scale.
The subjects' BMI were classified into normal, overweight and obese based on the WHO classification. Body fat percentage was graded for low, normal and high based on the earlier report. 
(c) Data Processing and Analysis
Data collected was transferred to the personal computer and subjected to statistical analysis to determine the various associated risk factors vis-a-vis disease outcome by computing prevalence rates and odds ratio. The statistical significance was computed using the Chi square test using Systat 9.0 software.
| Results|| |
Age and Sex-Wise Prevalence
One thousand seventy-seven males and 1009 females subjects were studied. Sex-wise distribution was similar [Table 1] in all the age groups. Prevalence of overall MSD symptoms was 25.9%, and it was significantly more common (P < 0.001) in females (31.3%) as compared [Table 2] with males (20.9%). MSD symptoms showed a significantly higher (P < 0.001) prevalence with increase in age, both for males and females. Pain in back (14.0%), limbs (5.5%) and knees (3.1%) were found to be the most common.
|Table 1: Overweight, obesity and musculoskeletal pain in the study subjects|
Click here to view
|Table 2: Sex-wise prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders symptoms in the study population|
Click here to view
Backache (lower/upper) was responsible for more than 50% of the total morbidity [Table 2] in both the sexes, and was more common among females (17.0%) as compared with (P < 0.001) males (11.1%). Pain in limbs was also more common (P < 0.05) in females than in males (males = 4.4%, females = 6.6%), whereas no significant sex-wise differences were observed for the rest of the symptoms.
No association with smoking and MS pain could be established (smokers = 25.9%; non-smokers = 26.2%). Overall prevalence of MS pain among vegetarians and non-vegetarians [Table 3] was also found to be statistically similar (vegetarians = 26.6%; non-vegetarians = 23.3%).
Body Composition Factors
Prevalence of overweight and obese subjects (as per BMI classification of WHO) with MS pain was 25.4% as compared with 20.4% with no MS pain [Table 1]. This difference was found to be statistically significant (OR = 1.67, P < 0.001).
Pain in joints, limbs, knee and lower leg was found to be significantly associated with overweight and obesity (OR = 2.1, P < 0.001). However, no association of obesity and overweight with backache could be established (OR = 1.28, P > 0.05).
Subjects with higher body fat were more prone to MS pain. Prevalence of MS symptoms was significantly higher (61.3%) in subjects with high fat as compared with normal subjects (50.5%, OR = 1.55, P < 0.0061). Pain in joints, limbs, knee and lower leg was also found to be significantly associated [Table 3] with overweight and obesity (OR = 2.2, P = 0.00).
Highest prevalence of MS pain (31.4%) among males was in agricultural/dairy workers followed by laborers (21.9%), while the lowest prevalence was observed among students (15.9%) and desk job workers (16.7%).
A similar pattern was observed in females, and the highest prevalence of MS pain (44.7%) was reported by agriculture/dairy workers. This was followed by housewives (35.9%) and laborers (32.3%).
Treatment history of the subjects with MS pain revealed that 7.8% (42%) and 7.02% (38%) were taking regular treatment for arthritis and back pain, respectively.
| Discussion|| |
The prevalence of MS pain in our study was observed to be 25.9%, which is much higher as compared with the studies by Pingle et al.,  Chopra et al.,  Faroqui and Gibson  and Lawarence et al.  In all these studies, the prevalence ranged between 15 and 18.2%. However, a study done in the general community in Cuba by Llerena et al.  reported a much higher prevalence of (43.9%) MS symptoms. Mahajan et al.  reported a prevalence of 24.2% MS symptoms, which is quite close to the present study.
Females are more affected than males. Similar findings have been reported by Pingle et al.,  Mahajan et al.,  and Chopra et al.  The study by Woolf and Pfleger  also revealed that females had a high prevalence of MSD complaints than males. The back pain (lower or upper) accounts for more than 50% of the total complaints, and it was more common in females than in males.
Age was seen to be an important factor in MS pain. Prevalence of pain increased with age till 50, but later a fall was seen in the prevalence [Table 3]. Similar findings are reported by Pingle et al.  and Chopra et al.  However, in a study by Woolf and Pfleger,  the prevalence of MSD complaints increased markedly with age.
Overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 24.9) were found to be important risk factors of MS pain. The risk among overweight/obese was 1.7-times more as compared with subjects with a BMI ≤ 24.9. Similarly, the subject with high body fat percentage had 1.5-times more risk of MSD compared with normal subjects. Grotle et al.  have also reported a similar association with obesity and development of osteoarthritis.
Statistically significant association between pain in joints, knees, limbs and lower leg was high body fat percent and high BMI. These subjects had twice the risk of pain in joints, knees, limbs and lower leg compared with normal subjects. Our result supports the studies of Rogger et al.  and Coggen et al. 
Subjects engaged in heavy work, like agriculture and dairy farming, had more complaints, i.e. 31.4% in males and 44.7% in females. Coggon et al.  and Kar et al.  also reported that MSD problems were be more common in subjects who performed heavy physical work and, particularly, in those in jobs that involve kneeling and squatting.
MS pain is very common and every fourth person suffers from it. Subjects in productive age groups, women and those who are overweight/obese are at special risk. Widespread MS pain represents a mixed category of pathologies that include single-site and polyarticular osteoarthritis, other arthritic conditions, spine diseases and chronic pain syndromes. 
The baseline health and behavioral characteristics associated with pain indicate issues for further study. Several other studies , have also shown that obesity is a risk factor for the onset and progression of osteoarthritis.
Globally, people suffering from MS problems increased by 25% over the past decade. MS conditions are currently the most common cause of chronic disability. Although the evidence needed to determine the most cost-effective interventions is scant, affordable measures to prevent and treat MS conditions are available in the public domain. 
The primary MS dysfunctions include:
- Inflammatory arthritis (principally, rheumatoid arthritis)
- Back pain
- MS injuries (such as sports injuries)
- Crystal arthritis (such as gout)
- Metabolic bone disease (principally osteoporosis)
MS conditions make up 2% of the global disease burden. Osteoarthritis accounts for the largest portion - 52% of the total burden of MS conditions in developing countries and 61% of the total burden of MS conditions in industrialized countries.
Osteoarthritis is increasing as the world's elderly population grows, and is the sixth leading cause of years lost to disability.  Although MS conditions are the most common cause of chronic disability worldwide, little information is available on approaches to addressing these conditions. It is therefore difficult to estimate the most cost-effective interventions for developing countries. Nevertheless, affordable strategies like good nutrition and exercise are the sheet anchor of many of the preventive and treatment strategies for MS conditions. Some facts are mentioned below:
- Weight reduction reduces pain and disability from osteoarthritis of the knee.
- Obesity is associated with back pain.
- Poor diet contributes to gout.
- Smoking and excessive alcohol use is linked to osteoporosis.
- Adequate calcium intake helps to maintain bone density and reduce the risk of fractures.
The best way to prevent these conditions is the following: 
- Engage in adequate physical activity for fitness
- Maintain ideal body weight.
- Follow a balanced diet that meets the requirements for calcium and vitamin D.
- Avoid smoking.
- Use only moderate amounts of alcohol, if any
- Put in place accident prevention programs related to road traffic crashes, leisure activities and workplaces.
The study highlights the need to formulate a policy and device specific intervention to alleviate suffering and reduce health care costs and lost productivity due to MS problems.
| Acknowledgments|| |
The study was funded under the CSIR Network project (NWP-17). Authors thank Mr. M. Fareed and Mr. M. K. Pathak, Project Assistants, for the help rendered during the health survey and Mr. N. K. Yadav, Project Assistant, for data compilation. This is IITR Comm No:2902.
| References|| |
|1.||Pingle AS, Pabdit DD. A cross sectional study of Rheumatic Musculoskeletal Disorders (RMSD) in an urban slum population. Indian J Community Med 2006;31:244-5. |
|2.||Mahajan A, Singh D, Jasrotia AS, Jamwal SS. Prevalence of major rheumatic disorders in Jammu. JK Sci J Med Educ Res 2003;5:63-6. |
|3.||Kar SK, Dhara PC. An evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders and socioeconomic status of farmers in West Bengal, India. Nepal Med Coll J 2007;9:245-9. |
|4.||Joshi TK, Menon KK, Kishore J. Musculoskeletal disorders in industrial workers of Delhi. Int J Occup Environ Health 2001;7:217-21. |
|5.||Habibi E, Fereidan M, Mollaghababai A, Pourabdin S. Prevalance of musculoskeletal disorders and associated lost work days in steel making industry. Iran J Public Health 2008;37:83-91. |
|6.||Srivastava AK, Clerk SH, Gupta BN. Musculoskeletal disorders in glass bangle workers of Firozabad. Ind J Occup Health 1987;30:91-7. |
|7.||Bihari V, Rastogi SK, Gupta BN, Mathur N, Hussain T. A symptomatic survey of locomotor problems and work conditions in brass ware industry. Indian J Occup Health 1991;34:47-53. |
|8.||Urwin M, Symmons D, Allison T, Brammah T, Busby H, Roxy M, et al. Estimating the burden of musculoskeletal disorders in the community: The comparative prevalence of symptoms at different anatomical sites and the relation to social deprivation. Ann Rheum Dis 1998;57:649-55. |
|9.||Tuzun EH. Quality of life in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2007;21:567-79. |
|10.||Woolf AD, Akesson K. Understanding the burden of musculoskeletal conditions. The burden is huge and not reflected in national health priorities. BMJ 2001;322:1079-89. |
|11.||Lidgren L. The Bone and Joint decade 2000-2010. Bull World Health Organ 2003;81:629. |
|12.||Lohman TG. Applicability of body composition techniques and constants for children and youths. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1996;14:325-57. |
|13.||Chopra A, Patil J, Billempelly V, Relwani J, Tandale HS. Prevalence of rheumatic diseases in a rural population in Western India. J Assoc Physicians India 2001;49:240-6. |
|14.||Farooqi A, Gibson T. Prevalence of major rheumatic disorders in the adult population of North Pakistan. Br J Rheumatol 1998;37:491-5. |
|15.||Lawrence RC, Helmick CG, Arnett FC, Deyo RA, Felson DT, Giannini HE. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States. Arthritis Rheum 1998;41:778-99. |
|16.||Llerena R, Toledano G, Coello P, Rodriguez P, Rosa B, Charnicharo V, et al. Community-based study to estimate prevalence and burden of illness of rheumatic diseases in Cuba: A COPCORD Study. J Clin Rheumatol 2009;15:51-5. |
|17.||Woolf AD, Plfeger B. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions. Bull World Health Organ 2003;81:646-56. |
|18.||Grotle M, Hagen KB, Natvig B, Dahl FA, Kvien TK. Obesity and osteoarthritis in knee, hip and/or hand: An epidemiological study in the general population with 10 years follows up. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2008;9:132-6. |
|19.||Rogers MW, Wilder FV. The association of BMI and knee pain among persons with radiographic knee osteoarthritis: A cross-sectional study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2008;9:163-8. |
|20.||Coggon D, Croft P, Kallingray S, Barret D, McLaren M, Cooper C. Occupational physical activities and osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum 2000;43:1443-9. |
|21.||Disease Control Priorities Project. Musculoskeletal conditions are the most common cause of chronic disability. Accessed from: http://www.dcp2.org/file/84/DCPP-Musculoskeletal.pdf. [Last cited on 2011 Jan 25]. |
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]
|This article has been cited by|
||Is adiposity associated with back and lower limb pain? A systematic review
| ||Waruna L. Peiris, Flavia M. Cicuttini, Sultana Monira Hussain, Mahnuma M. Estee, Lorena Romero, Tom A. Ranger, Jessica L. Fairley, Emily C. McLean, Donna M. Urquhart, Stephen E. Alway |
| ||PLOS ONE. 2021; 16(9): e0256720 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Association between Whole-Body Vibration exposure and musculoskeletal disorders among dumper operators: A case-control study in Indian iron ore mines
| ||Rahul Upadhyay, Ashis Bhattacherjee, Aditya Kumar Patra, Nearkasen Chau |
| ||Work. 2021; : 1 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Burden of pain in back and extremities in rural population: A community-based estimation of 12-month prevalence, distribution and duration of pain in rural Gadchiroli, India
| ||Anand A Bang, Shekhar Y Bhojraj, Mahesh Deshmukh, Vinay R Joshi, Tushar Yarmal, Sameer Kalkotwar, Abhay T Bang |
| ||Journal of Global Health. 2021; 11 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||High prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in individuals with severe obesity: sites, intensity, and associated factors
| ||Carolina Rodrigues Mendonša, Matias Noll, Annelisa Silva e Alves de Carvalho Santos, Ana Paula dos Santos Rodrigues, Erika Aparecida Silveira |
| ||The Korean Journal of Pain. 2020; 33(3): 245 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and associated risk factors among domestic gas workers and staff of works department in Enugu, Nigeria: a cross-sectional study
| ||Chinenye Doris Oluka, Esther Obidike, Antoninus Obinna Ezeukwu, Ogochukwu Kelechi Onyeso, Echezona Nelson Dominic Ekechukwu |
| ||BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2020; 21(1) |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions and related disabilities in Bangladeshi adults: a cross-sectional national survey
| ||Ahmad Zahid-Al-Quadir, M. Mostafa Zaman, Shamim Ahmed, Mahfuzur Rahman Bhuiyan, Md Mujibur Rahman, Ismail Patwary, Bidhu Bhushan Das, Shaikh Amir Hossain, Sujat Paul, Abu Shahin, Moshiur Rahman, Syed Atiqul Haq |
| ||BMC Rheumatology. 2020; 4(1) |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Vitamin D (FokI) Receptor Gene Polymorphism is associated with Vitamin D Deficiency and Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain. A meta-analysis
| ||Ahmed Abdulahi Abdurahman, Leila Khorrami-nezhad, Khadijeh Mirzaei |
| ||International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. 2017; 87(3-4): 219 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Relationship between daily physical activity level and low back pain in young, female desk-job workers
| ||Gurhan Kayihan |
| ||International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. 2014; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Measurement of prevalence of Šmajor depressive syndromeŠ among Indian patients attending pain clinic with chronic pain using PHQ-9 scale
| ||Dutta, D. and Bharati, S. and Roy, C. and Das, G. |
| ||Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology. 2013; 29(1): 76-82 |