Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine   Official publication of Indian Association of  0ccupational  Health  
 Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 Users Online:634

  IAOH | Subscription | e-Alerts | Feedback | Login 

Home About us Current Issue Archives Search Instructions
  Search
 
  
 
    Similar in PUBMED
     Search Pubmed for
     Search in Google Scholar for
   Related articles
    Article in PDF (334 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


   Abstract
  Introduction
   Materials and Me...
  Discussion
  Conclusion
   References
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed508    
    Printed16    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded92    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

 


 
  Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 151-156
 

Job satisfaction among resident doctors of a Tertiary Care Hospital in South Delhi


1 Department of Community Medicine, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education (CARE), Kelembakkam, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Kathua, Jammu and Kashmir, India
3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynceology, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, OMR- Kelambakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Department of Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, BiBi Nagar, Telangana, India

Date of Submission03-Nov-2021
Date of Decision04-Jan-2022
Date of Acceptance12-Mar-2022
Date of Web Publication26-Sep-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. J Jennifer Britto
Assistant Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynceology, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, OMR- Kelambakkam, Chennai - 603 103, Tamil Nadu
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijoem.ijoem_319_21

Rights and Permissions

 

  Abstract 


Background: Doctors' job satisfaction is crucial to the health service to ensure commitment, effective training, service provision, and retention. Job satisfaction matters to doctors for their happiness, fulfilment, service to patients, and duty to employers. The quality of performance in the health sector to a large extent depends on whether healthcare providers are job-satisfied or dissatisfied. Objectives: This study assessed the level and factors determining job satisfaction among resident doctors in a federal tertiary institution. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the resident doctors of a government tertiary care hospital. Data were collected using a self-reported questionnaire consisting of 49 items under seven domains of job satisfaction, where higher values indicated a higher level of satisfaction. The average scores of items were computed to construct factor scores for each individual. A Chi-square test was applied. Results: The proportion of job satisfaction among resident doctors was found to be 80.9%. On adjustment, the odds of being satisfied were found to be higher in the older age groups, among males, and doctors posted in clinical departments. Conclusion: Most respondents in this study were satisfied with their jobs with minorities satisfied with their monetary and infrastructure facilities. There is a need to address these issues to enhance healthcare quality, especially in the public sector.


Keywords: Healthcare quality, job satisfaction, resident doctors, tertiary healthcare


How to cite this article:
Chellaiyan D V, Gupta S, Britto J J, Kamble B. Job satisfaction among resident doctors of a Tertiary Care Hospital in South Delhi. Indian J Occup Environ Med 2022;26:151-6

How to cite this URL:
Chellaiyan D V, Gupta S, Britto J J, Kamble B. Job satisfaction among resident doctors of a Tertiary Care Hospital in South Delhi. Indian J Occup Environ Med [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Dec 3];26:151-6. Available from: https://www.ijoem.com/text.asp?2022/26/3/151/357025





  Introduction Top


Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about different aspects of their jobs.[1] It is considered the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs.[2] In other words, it is a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job and an affective reaction to one's job and an attitude toward one's job.[3]

It is frequently studied in several disciplines such as psychology, sociology, economics, and management sciences. This is because many experts believe that job satisfaction can influence work productivity, work effort, employee absenteeism, and staff turnover.[2] Many studies suggest that employers can be benefitted from satisfied employees as they are more likely to profit from lower staff turnover and higher productivity.[4] Job satisfaction is the most important factor for determining the quality of service of the healthcare sector.[5] Over the past few years, especially in developing countries, the number of doctors choosing to work abroad or in non-medical professions has been growing. The process of becoming a doctor is long and demanding. Also, it is expensive both at the individual level and from a public perspective.[6] However, if the medical doctors do not achieve a level of satisfaction with their work that is appropriate for their level of commitment, the health service may risk losing their valuable expertise to other countries or other careers.[7],[8]

Job satisfaction among doctors needs to be investigated in the present context where doctors are no longer held in high regard as in the past.[9] The working conditions of doctors and the way healthcare is delivered have changed over the past decade.[10] Factors such as internet-derived healthcare information, frequent malpractice suits, diminished patient relationships, and the time pressures associated with managed care can influence doctors' job satisfaction.[11],[12],[13],[14]

Doctors' dissatisfaction with their job can have a significant public health implication as it may adversely affect the clinical management of patients.[15],[16],[17],[18] It is related to the quality of healthcare, patient satisfaction with the services they receive, patient compliance, and continuity of care. Satisfied employees tend to be more productive, creative, and committed to their employers.[19] On the other hand, dissatisfaction leads to increased absenteeism, lower productivity, and increased staff turnover, each of which results in an increased cost to the health system.[20] If not properly addressed, doctors' dissatisfaction may affect their health as well.[21] Lewis and co-workers reported that physicians who are satisfied with their work are likely to report high satisfaction in their marriages and fewer psychiatric symptoms.[22] Dissatisfied physicians may also deter future students from entering the field of medicine.[23] Ample research has been performed on client satisfaction in the health sector, but the understanding of providers' satisfaction in the healthcare system needs more investigation. The study was performed to find job satisfaction among the resident doctors of a tertiary care hospital. The study was performed to assess perceived stress among the resident doctors.


  Materials and Methods Top


The cross-sectional study was carried out among the resident doctors of a tertiary hospital. The hospital is a government healthcare facility, which is a referral center in the south district of Delhi with under-graduate and post-graduate teaching programs. There were about 220 resident doctors, which include residents of all specialities during the study period during 2019. The study included senior and junior residents of all broad and super specialities – pre-clinical, para-clinical, and clinical disciplines. Those residents with a minimum of 1 year of experience in the institute were recruited. Those who are non-academic junior residents (non-postgraduates) were excluded from the study. A complete enumeration of all the residents was performed. The study was conducted after the approval of Institutional Ethics Committee on 01.11.2018.

Study tool: After obtaining written informed consent from the study participants, the residents were enrolled in the study. The data were collected using a pre-tested, validated study questionnaire that had baseline characteristics and a job satisfaction assessment scale. The job satisfaction scale used was based on the questionnaire developed by Kumar P et al.,[20] which had 49 items under seven domains such as 1. Additional privileges of the job, 2. Inter-personal professional relations, 3. Work environment, 4. Physician–patient relationship, 5. infrastructure facilities of the institute, 6. Future career prospects, and 7. Health manpower. The questions under the seven domains are plotted in a 5-point Likert scale from 1 to 5 with 5, very satisfied; 4, satisfied; 3, neutral; 2, unsatisfied; and 1, very unsatisfied. The overall score is calculated from the individual 49 items. A total score of more than 120 was considered to be satisfactory. A score of more than 120 was used to classify the study participants into satisfied and not satisfied classes.

Data analysis: The data were entered and analyzed in SPSS IBM version 21.0. Normality was checked before applying tests of significance. Multi-variate regression analysis was performed to compare the predictors of job satisfaction. A P value <0.05 was considered to be significant.

Results: The study was conducted among 220 resident doctors working in different specialities and super specialities working in a government healthcare facility in North India. The mean age of the participants was 26 (±7) years. 17% were married, and the males (66%) out-numbered the females (34%). Doctors from clinical departments comprised 65.5% of the study population, and 60% were working from the past 1 to 3 years [Table 1].
Table 1: Baseline characteristics of the study population (n=220)

Click here to view


Job satisfaction level and additional privileges of the job: The major factors of satisfaction relating to the additional privileges of the job were loan eligibility prospects, salary additional allowances, and retirement age limit. The major factors of dissatisfaction were benefits in pension, children education assistance, maternity/paternity benefits, provident fund benefits, conveyance reimbursement, and leave benefits.

Job satisfaction level and inter-personal professional relations: The factors of the highest satisfaction relating to inter-personal relations were easy relationship with colleagues, respect from juniors, collaboration as a team, professional guidance by seniors, and imposing of rules, and that of dissatisfaction was the acknowledgement of work.

Job satisfaction level and work environment: The major factors of satisfaction relating to the work environment included satisfaction with a free hand in work, and the overall work environment major factor of dissatisfaction was staff strength in work and distribution of work among colleagues.

Job satisfaction level and physician–patient relationship: The factor of the highest satisfaction relating to the physician–patient relationship was patient compliance in drug compliance, and that of dissatisfaction was patients' expectations [Table 2].
Table 2: Job satisfaction scale among the study population (n=220)

Click here to view


Job satisfaction level and infrastructure facilities of the institute: The major factors of satisfaction relating to the infrastructure facilities of the institute included drinking water facilities and electricity and generator facilities. The major factors of dissatisfaction were central warming facilities in winter, cooling facilities in summer, and cleanliness in the premises.

Job satisfaction level and future career prospects: Concerning future career prospects, doctors were satisfied with the scope of learning new skills, training provision, and career growth and promotion.

Job satisfaction level and health manpower: The majority of the participants were satisfied with transparency in selection and rules and regulations of an employee. A major factor of dissatisfaction was workload at the working place.

The proportion of job satisfaction was found to be 80.9% in the study population. On adjustment, the odds of job satisfaction were significantly higher in the older age groups. Higher odds were also found among males and doctors posted in clinical branches [Table 3].
Table 3: Multi-variate logistic regression for prediction of risk factors of job satisfaction

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


In the present study, different domains of job satisfaction were considered, which included additional privileges of the job, inter-personal professional relations, work environment, physician–patient relationship, infrastructure facilities of the institute, future career prospects, and health manpower. In this study, the majority of the participants (80.9%) were satisfied with their job, compared to the previous study among resident doctors, who showed 80.9% Nigeria,[2] 78.5% Delhi,[24] and 74% Chandigarh.[25] This is higher than 69.5% (Madaan et al.),[26] 50% (Nylenna et al.),[27] 40% (Chaudhury and Bannerjee),[28] and 30% (Omolase et al.)[29] elsewhere.

One reason for this seeming disparity in a similar set of participants may be because of the use of diverse instruments for measuring job satisfaction. However, studies performed in developing and developed countries have shown differences in job satisfaction. In a study covering ten nations of the European Union, it was found that only a quarter of the doctors were dissatisfied.[30] On the other hand, studies performed in Karachi[31] and Srilanka[32] have shown the proportion of satisfied doctors to be 32% and 43.6%, respectively. This may be because of the perks and privileges attached to the job, mainly salary, in developed countries. In our study, an increasing age was found to be significantly associated with higher levels of satisfaction. A longitudinal study among Norwegian doctors by Nylenna et al.[27] showed a positive correlation with age and job satisfaction better with growing age. This may be attributed to the fact that as the age increases, expectations decrease and are replaced with gradual acceptance of the situation and adaptation. In contrast, a younger age is associated with restlessness and increased expectations from the job, which if not met may result in dissatisfaction. However, this is in contrast with another study where younger doctors expressed more satisfaction with their jobs.[26] This finding needs to be reviewed in the context of the distribution of satisfaction against the years of service performed by these doctors.

In this study, males were significantly more satisfied than females. Women were less satisfied than men with work-related 'burdens', which may reflect a greater pressure on women to manage family matters, in addition to their careers. This is in contrast to similar studies in which females were found to be more satisfied than their male colleagues.[26],[33],[34] Speciality: In our study, in comparison with pre-clinical branches, doctors working in clinical branches (both speciality and super speciality) were more significantly more satisfied. This was in contrast to a study performed by Bhattacherjee S et al.[5] among doctors of eastern India.

Other factors such as the duration of service and their designation and marital status were not significantly associated with their level of job satisfaction. However, many studies have reported that a very large proportion of doctors who had been in the service longer expressed satisfaction with their job, whereas those who have been in the service for a shorter duration expressed more dissatisfaction.[35],[36] The major factors related to non-satisfaction reported in our study were insufficient benefits in pension (89%), children education assistance (95%), leave befits (90%), staff inadequacy in work (90%), distribution of work among colleagues (91%), central warming facilities in winter (100%), and cleanliness of the premises (90%). The doctors were satisfied with the retirement age limit (90%), professional guidance by seniors (94%), imposing of rules (97%), patient compliance in drug compliance (96%), drinking water facilities (95%), electricity backup (95%), scope of learning new skills (96%), and rules and regulations of the employee (96%). Research has consistently identified factors such as monetary benefits and dissimilar workload that can affect satisfaction[37] (Stoddard, Hargraves & Reed, 2001). Many doctors are dissatisfied with their jobs because of long working hours and overwork.[24]


  Conclusion Top


The satisfaction with the job was pretty well among a majority of the medical professionals. The key factors of the satisfaction included remuneration and career development. Satisfaction was much higher among those working at clinical departments, although there is a need to enhance healthcare infrastructure facilities.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Spector PE. Job Satisfaction: Application, Assessment, Causes, and Consequences. London: Sage; 1997.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Yakasai IA, Ugwa EA, Abubakar IS. Job satisfaction among resident doctors in a tertiary healthcare facility in Northern Nigeria; A cross-sectional survey. Trop J Obstet Gynecol 2013;30:89-96.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Judge TA, Thoresen CJ, Bono JE, Patton GK. The job satisfaction-job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review. Psychol Bull 2001;127:376-407.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Nguyen AN, Taylor J, Bradley S. Relative pay and job satisfaction: Some new evidence, Working Paper 045, Department of Economics, Lancaster University Management School, 2003.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Bhattacherjee S, Ray K, Roy JK, Mukherjee A, Roy H, Datta S. Job satisfaction among doctors of a government medical college and hospital of eastern India. Nepal J Epidemiol 2016;6:595-602.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Surman G, Lambert TW, Goldacre M. Doctors' enjoyment of their work and satisfaction with time available for leisure: UK time trend questionnaire-based study. Postgrad Med J 2016;92:194–200.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Coomber B, Barriball KL. Impact of job satisfaction components on intent to leave and turnover for hospital-based nurses: A review of the research literature. Int J Nurs Stud 2007;44:297–314.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Sharma A, Lambert TW, Goldacre MJ. Why UK-trained doctors leave the UK: A cross-sectional survey of doctors in New Zealand. J R Soc Med 2012;105:25–34.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Buciuniene I, Blazeviciene A, Bliudziute E. The health care reform and job satisfaction of primary health care physicians in Lithuania. BMC Fam Pract 2005;6:10.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Davies HT, Harrison S. Trends in doctor-management relationships. Br Med J 2003;326:646-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Gutierrez N, Kindratt TB, Pagels P, Foster B, Gimpel NE. Health literacy, health information-seeking behaviours and internet use among patients attending a private and public clinic in the same geographic area. J Community Health 2014;39:83-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Chen K-Y, Yang C-M, Lien C-H, Chiou H-Y, Lin M-R, Chang H-R, et al. Burnout, job satisfaction, and medical malpractice among physicians. Int J Med Sci 2013;10:1471-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Huntington B, Kuhn N. Communication gaffes: A root cause of malpractice claims. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2003;16:157-61.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Schletter K. Difficultpatient-physician relationships and the risk of medical malpractice litigation. Virtual Mentor 2009;11:242–6.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Zuger A. Dissatisfaction with medical practice. NEJM 2004;350:69-75.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
DiMatteo MR, Sherbourne CD, Hays RD, Ordway L, Kravitz RL, McGlynn EA, et al. Physicians' characteristics influence patients' adherence to medical treatment: Results from the medical outcomes study. Health Psychol 1993;12:93-102.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Haas JS, Cook EF, Puopolo AL, Burstin HR, Cleary PD, Brennan TA. Is the professional satisfaction of general internists associated with patient satisfaction. J Gen Intern Med 2000;15:122-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Pathman DE, Konrad TR, Williams ES, Scheckler WE, Linzer M, Douglas J. Physician job satisfaction, dissatisfaction and turn over. J Fam Pract 2002;51:593.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Martins OF, Tukur D, Danburam A, Salwau FK. Job satisfaction among doctors and nurses: A case study of federal medical centre Yola, Nigeria. Int J Community Med Public Health 2016;3:1640-7.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Kumar P, Khan AM. Development of job satisfaction scale for health care providers. Indian J Public Health 2014;58:249-55.  Back to cited text no. 20
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
21.
Sundquist J, Johannson SE. High demand, low control and impaired general health working conditions in a sample of Swedish general practitioners. Scand J Public Health 2000;28:123-31.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Lewis JM, Barhart FD, Howard BL, Carson DI, Nace EP. Work satisfaction in the lives of physicians. Tex Med 1993;89:54-61.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Kaplan D. Determinants of job satisfaction and turnover among physicians. Master's Theses. The Faculty of the Department of Psychology, San Jose State University, 2009. p. 1-39.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Suminder K, Rahul S, Richa T, Anita V, Saudan S. A study of job satisfaction and work environment perception among doctors in a tertiary hospital in Delhi. Indian J Med Sci 2009;63:139-44.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Sharma M, Goel S, Singh SK, Sharma R, Gupta PK. Determinants of Indian physicians' satisfaction & dissatisfaction from their job. Indian J Med Res 2014;139:409-17.  Back to cited text no. 25
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
26.
Madaan N. Job satisfaction among doctors in a tertiary care teaching hospital. JK Sci 2008;10:81–3.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Nylenna M, Gulbrandsen P, Førde R, Aasland OG. Unhappy doctors? A longitudinal study of life and job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors 1994 – 2002. BMC Health Serv Res 2005;5:44.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Chaudhury S, Bannerjee A. Correlates of job satisfaction in medical officers. Med J Armed Forces India 2004;60:329-32.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Omolase CO, Seidu MA, Omolase BO, Agborubere DE. Job satisfaction amongst Nigerian ophthalmologists: An exploratory study. Libyan J Med 2010;5:4629.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Bensing JM, Brink-MuinenA van den, Boerma W, Dulmen S van. The manifestation of job satisfaction in doctor-patient communication: A ten-country European study. International Journal of Person-Centered Medicine 2013;3:44-52.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Khuwaja AK, Qureshi R, Andrades M, Fatmi Z, Khuwaja NK. Comparison of job satisfaction and stress among male and female doctors in teaching hospitals of Karachi. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2004;16:23-7.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Rodrigo MDA, Dissanayake A, Galhenage J, Wijesinghe S, Kuruppuarachchi K. Job satisfaction and mental health of Sri Lankan doctors. South Asian J Psychiatry 2013;3:14-7.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Jabbari H, Pezeshki MZ, Naghavi-Behzad M, Asghari M, Bakhshian F. Relationship between job satisfaction and performance of primary care physicians after the family physician reform of East Azerbaijan province in Northwest Iran. Indian J Public Health 2014;58:256-60.  Back to cited text no. 33
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
34.
Sibbald B, Enzer I, Cooper C, Rout U, Sutherland V. GP job satisfaction in 1987, 1990 and 1998: Lessons for the future? Fam Pract 2000;17:364–71.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Oshagbemi T. Is length of service related to job satisfaction. Int J Soc Econ 2000;27:213-26.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Sarker S, Crossman A, Chinmeteepituck P. The relationship of age and length of service with job satisfaction: An examination of hotel employees in Thailand. J Manag Psychol 2003;18:745-58  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Stoddard JJ, Hargraves JL, Reed M, Vratil A. Managed care-professional autonomy and income. J Gen Intern Med 2001;16:675-84.  Back to cited text no. 37
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article